Strength of H-Columns with Small End Restraints
A deterministic approach was used to assess the strength of centrally loaded H-columns, taking into consideration the effects of residual stresses, initial out-of-straightness, and small end restraints. The column types used in the study include hot-rolled wide-flange shapes and flamecut H-shapes. The initial crookedness at midheight was taken as one thousandth of the length of the column. Five types of residual stress
distribution were considered and four common types of beam-to-column connection were used as end restraints.
Eric M. Lui and Professor Wai-Fah Chen