Search help

The information below will help you to get the most out of the Institution's archive search.

Boolean and Proximity Operators

Boolean and proximity operators can create a more precise query.

To Search For Example Results
Exact phrase search "floating bridge" Pages containing the phrase “floating bridge”
Both terms in the same page floating and bridge
Or
floating & bridge
Pages with both the words “floating” and “bridge”
Either term in a page floating or bridge
Or
floating | bridge
Pages with the words “floating” or “bridge”
The first term without the second term floating and not bridge
Or
floating & ! bridge
Pages with the word “floating” but not “bridge”
Pages not matching a property value not @size = 100
Or
! @size = 100
Pages that are not 100 bytes
Both terms in the same page, close together floating near bridge
Or
floating ~ bridge
Pages with the word “floating” near the word “bridge”

Hints:

  • You can add parentheses to nest expressions within a query. The expressions in parentheses are evaluated before the rest of the query.
  • The NEAR operator is similar to the AND operator in that NEAR returns a match if both words being searched for are in the same page. However, the NEAR operator differs from AND because the rank assigned by NEAR depends on the proximity of words. That is, the rank of a page with the searched-for words closer together is greater than or equal to the rank of a page where the words are farther apart. If the searched-for words are more than 50 words apart, they are not considered near enough, and the page is assigned a rank of zero.
  • The NOT operator can be used only after an AND operator in content queries; it can be used only to exclude pages that match a previous content restriction. For property value queries, the NOT operator can be used apart from the AND operator.
  • The AND operator has a higher precedence than OR. For example, the first three queries are equal, but the fourth is not:
    • a AND b OR c
    • c OR a AND b
    • c OR (a AND b)
    • (c OR a) AND b

Wildcards

Wildcard operators help you find pages containing words similar to a given word.

To Search For Example Results
Words with the same prefix comput* Pages with words that have the prefix “comput,” such as “computer,” “computing,” and so on
Words based on the same stem word fly** Pages with words based on the same stem as “fly,” such as “flying,” “flown,” “flew,” and so on