The Structural Engineer > Archive > Volume 67 (1989) > Issues > Issue 14 > Non-Linear Behaviour of Composite Beams at Service Loads
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Non-Linear Behaviour of Composite Beams at Service Loads

This paper considers the time-varying behaviour of composite beams under sustained service loads. A non-linear method of analysis involving a Newton-Raphson solution procedure is developed and used to investigate the time-dependent response of composite cross-sections. The age-adjusted effective modulus method is used to model the constitutive relationship for concrete, while yielding and residual stresses in the steel joist are also accounted for. At typical service load levels, the effect of creep and shrinkage dominates the time-dependent reduction of stiffness, with the effect of residual stresses being only minor. M.A. Bradford and R.I. Gilbert