The Structural Engineer > Archive > Volume 75 (1997) > Issues > Issue 6 > Effective Bracing Systems for Temporary Grandstandsds
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Effective Bracing Systems for Temporary Grandstandsds

This paper is concerned with the structural mechanics of pin-jointed structures and temporary grandstands. Particular attention is paid to horizontal stiffness which is one of the principal design checks for such structures. It is demonstrated that the stiffness of a pin-jointed structure can be increased by providing shorter or direct load paths between the loads and the supports and also by providing a uniform inner force distribution. Following these concepts, five simple criteria for arranging bracing members of temporary grandstands are obtained. Several bracing systems are examined and compared with equivalent systems obtained using these criteria. The results show that the criteria can be used to increase the lateral stiffness (or frequencies) without using extra bracing members. Then the structural characteristics of typical bracing svstems of parts of two temporary grandstands are studied. Following the proposed criteria, the bracing systems can be rearranged to provide a significant increase in lateral stiffness. The effects of misalignment or omission of bracing members are also considered. T. Ji and B.R. Ellis