# Bursting Forces in Reinforced Concrete Columns

*Bursting forces in columns are caused by cranked vertical reinforcement. Although these bursting forces are well documented, few Codes of Practice deal with the effects
adequately. British, South African and American Codes are critically evaluated in this regard. An equation is developed to determine the amount of bursting steel required which is in the form of column ties. A finite element study and columns tests are carried out to evaluate the effects of the bursting forces and as a contribution to the design process. Recommendations are also given describing practical measures for design.
M. Gohnert, C. Morris and K. Webber*

Author(s): Gohnert, M;Morris, C;Webber, K

Keywords: bursting forces;concrete columns;equations;columns;ties;finite element analysis;tests;recommendations;design;practical methods;bs4466;codes of practice;bs8110;sabs0100;aci;reinforcement