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In current practice, estimating the effects of tunnel construction in soft ground beneath an existing building is usually a two-stage procedure, where interaction between the ground and the building is ignored. This paper describes a study of tunnelling-induced settlement damuge to masonry buildings, using a numerical model, in which interaction is included. 2-dimensional finite elements(FEs) are used with non-linear material models for the soil and for a masonry façade. The excavation of a tunnel is simulated, and the resulting damage in the façade, principally cracking, can be observed. This study concentrates on the effect of façade weight and stiffness and the horizontal location of the façade with respect to the tunnel axis. The study finds that increasing facade weight tends to increase damage, owing to the larger horizontal strains. Increasing facade stiffness, however, appears to reduce damage, since the differential settlements under the facade are inhibited.
G. Liu, Professor G.T. Houlsby and C.E. Augarde
First, a very happy new year to all readers and, above all, to the many contributors who provided such a varied harvest in 2000. All power to those elbows, whether wielding pen or mouse, for 2001 Verulam looks forward to receiving your further thoughts or queries. There is currently a backlog of contributions, so correspondants may need to be patient. Verulam is trying to melt the Editor’s flinty heart for a little more space, so here‘s hoping!
Masonry is one of man's oldest building materials, its use stretching back for thousands of years. In about 2200 BC, when the Tower of Babel was being constructed, the writer informs us that the builders used brick instead of stone and tar instead of mortar, from which it is evident that masonry construction using stone and mortar was already well established as a building technique at that time. Since these ancient times, the basic principles of masonry construction have hardly altered, although there have been changes to the building and production processes and to the philosophy of masonry construction.