Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
1 January 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
Dead loads (permanent actions) are defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the fixed materials it is supporting.
An introduction to the series from the Institution's former Director: Engineering and Technical Services, Sarah Fray.
The twisting of elements within structures due to eccentric loading is best avoided. Such actions develop torsion forces - which the elements were not designed to withstand. This note shows structural engineers how to avoid problems that can lead to significant remedial works and/or failures.