Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
30 November 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
The twisting of elements within structures due to eccentric loading is best avoided. Such actions develop torsion forces - which the elements were not designed to withstand. This note shows structural engineers how to avoid problems that can lead to significant remedial works and/or failures.
This note explains how steel elements are restrained against buckling and what the structural engineer should consider when analysing steel structures with respect to buckling resistance.
Dead loads (permanent actions) are defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the fixed materials it is supporting.