Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
30 November 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
The twisting of elements within structures due to eccentric loading is something that is best avoided as far as is possible. Such actions develop torsion forces in elements against which they were not designed to withstand. This Technical Guidance Note concerns this buildability and detailing issue that structural engineers must become familiar with in order to avoid otherwise unforeseen problems that can lead to significant remedial works on site and in some cases failures.
This Technical Guidance Note defines the concept of fatigue and how its effects can be countered.
This Technical Guidance Note describes the concept of biaxial bending of columns, as well as the effect direct bending has on column design. The guidance given here can be applied to columns made from any material, be it steel, concrete, timber or even glass.