Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
1 April 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of dead loads. This is a core guidance note and as such, subsequent notes will make reference to this one. It is therefore important to understand the contents of this note before attempting to digest any of the others. Dead load is defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the materials it is supporting that are fixed to it. Within Eurocode 1 it is defined as a 'Permanent Action'.
This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of snow load onto structures. It is based on Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Part 1-3; General Actions – Snow Loads. With this Eurocode being focused on an action that is sensitive to environmental effects, the UK annex to it plays a significant role, as it makes reference to projected snow falls that are unique to the British Isles. There are a large number of variations and conditions the designer must be aware of when determining snow loads onto structures. As such, the reader is referred to the code text more frequently than in other Technical Guidance Notes. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
This Technical Guidance Note explains the basic principles of below ground drainage for both surface and foul water. Acting as an introduction, it describes the different types of drainage pipes that are available, how they are installed, how they interface with structure, their testing and maintenance.