Author: D. Yeboah, S. Taylor, D. McPolin and R. Gilﬁllan (Queen's University Belfast)
2 May 2012
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D. Yeboah, S. Taylor, D. McPolin and R. Gilﬁllan (Queen's University Belfast)
The United States Air Force Memorial (USAFM), overlooking the Pentagon in Washington DC, comprises three stainless steel spires which evoke an image of aircraft in a ‘bomb-burst’ manoeuvre. The elegance and simplicity of their architectural form belies the complexity of their engineering design. Structurally they consist of a stiffened stainless steel shell with the lower two thirds of each filled with concrete. A second component, essential to the integrity of the structure, is also hidden by the steel skin; a series of large, steel-coated spheres, free to roll in oversized padded boxes, are located inside each spire. The purpose of these ‘impact dampers’ is to stabilise the motions of the spires in high winds. This article provides an overview of the spire structures and focuses on the challenges encountered during the design, development and test of the damping devices.
All articles published in the May 2012 issue. (NB Technical Guidance Note Level 1, No. 8 contained within this issue was updated in October 2016. For the updated article, see the individual article entry for this issue.)
This paper discusses a study undertaken by Arup on behalf of The Concrete Centre to investigate the embodied CO2 in typical structural frames for non-residential buildings. The study used the designed and measured schemes produced for the cost model studies published by The Concrete Centre in 2007-2008. The study explored the variations in embodied CO2 predictions. Two sources of variation were considered: the method of the analysis and the speciifcation. The study found that, within the uncertainties of the available data, there was little difference between the embodied CO2 of the different types of structural frames, but that once the frame type had been chosen, there was a significant opportunity for the structural engineer to reduce the embodied CO2 of the final structure by careful specification.