Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
26 March 2013
Members/Subscribers, log in to access
The Institution of Structural Engineers
(This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
This note discusses the concept of fatigue and how its effects can be countered.
This note concerns the design of masonry walls subject to lateral loads (i.e. those used as a cladding element). It discusses material assessment, restraint, geometry and exposure conditions. Updated in October 2016.
Portal frames are a simple and very common type of framed (or skeleton) structure. Steel portal frames, in particular, are a cost-effective structural system to support building envelopes requiring large column-free spaces.