Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
1 June 2013
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
Until relatively recently, masonry was the major load bearing component in a building structure. With the advent of steel and concrete frame technologies, masonry has become a part of a building’s cladding envelope and as such is more prone to being exposed to lateral loads than vertical ones. This Technical Guidance Note concerns the design of masonry walls that are subject to lateral loads i.e. they are being used as a cladding element. It will discuss the way in which the material is assessed against how it is being restrained and its geometry. All of these factors have an impact on the design of masonry walls as well as the mortar within them and the exposure conditions. This is discussed in Technical Guidance Note 27 (Level 1) and should be read in conjunction with this guide. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of dead loads. This is a core guidance note and as such, subsequent notes will make reference to this one. It is therefore important to understand the contents of this note before attempting to digest any of the others. Dead load is defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the materials it is supporting that are fixed to it. Within Eurocode 1 it is defined as a 'Permanent Action'.
This Technical Guidance Note describes the causes of cracking in concrete.