Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
28 February 2014
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
Dead loads (permanent actions) are defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the fixed materials it is supporting.
When designing foundations (from a simple pad footing to a pile cap) there is a need to determine the soil's bearing capacity. This note explains the principles of how this is determined, and how it impacts on foundation design.
The twisting of elements within structures due to eccentric loading is best avoided. Such actions develop torsion forces - which the elements were not designed to withstand. This note shows structural engineers how to avoid problems that can lead to significant remedial works and/or failures.