Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
28 February 2014
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of wind load onto structures. It is based on Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Part 1-4; General Actions – Wind Actions. With this being focused on a load that is sensitive to the environment, the UK Annex to the Eurocode plays a significant part as it makes reference to wind speeds that are unique to the British Isles. There are a large amount of variations and conditions the designer must be aware of when determining wind loads on structures. It is for this reason that the reader is referred to the code text more often than in other notes in this series.
This Technical Guidance Note describes the causes of cracking in concrete.
While the advancement of computer based analysis continues to grow exponentially within the field of structural engineering, the tools that are used to analyse structures by hand are no less relevant. Many would argue that such tools are even more vital today than they have ever been if we are to fully understand the output of analysis applications. With this in mind, this Technical Guidance Note describes one of the most powerful analysis tools available: moment distribution. Moment distribution is a method by which statically indeterminate structures are analysed elastically. It’s based on the relative stiffness of elements that make up a structure and shifts bending moments from one section of the structure to another until they become balanced. Once this balance has been achieved, the forces and bending moments within the structure are modelled. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)