Author: M.D. Beare (AKS Ward-Lister Beare Consulting Engineers)
1 September 2015
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M.D. Beare (AKS Ward-Lister Beare Consulting Engineers)
In Timber Engineering Notebook (TEN) No. 21, the engineered wood product known as cross-laminated timber (CLT) was introduced. This latest article in the TEN series provides a more detailed introduction to the applications and use of CLT as a structural timber product, including structural benefits and benefits to the construction process.
The ‘Wood and Armer’ equations are well established as a means of accounting for torsional moments in bridge slabs. In this article, a potential source of misinterpretation of the original equations is identified and corrected. The misinterpretation is shown not to have significant implications for design, but may be of consequence where the Wood and Armer equations have been used for assessment. A number of other inconsistencies are identified and a revised set of equations is proposed.
Timber and stone are the oldest known building materials. Our most ancient buildings are characterised by their use. So it is no surprise that an engineer looking after historic fabric will regularly encounter the need to repair timberwork. The greatest threats to the structural integrity of timber are from attack by rot and insect; therefore, in the damp British Isles, those working in conservation will often need to reach for the sketchpad to record and re-detail areas damaged by the effects of moisture. Interventions to historic timberwork are also necessary when a building is converted. This happens, for example, when floor joists are reframed or loading is assessed for a new use. While philosophically this is different to a simple repair, it nevertheless requires similar skillsets to achieve the best, most sensitive results. This article looks briefly at these matters, first from the aspect of conservation philosophy and material choice to establish some ground rules, and then by showing some of the details typically in use in the UK today. In order to focus on these, it does not consider survey and diagnosis.