Author: M.D. Beare (AKS Ward-Lister Beare Consulting Engineers)
1 September 2015
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M.D. Beare (AKS Ward-Lister Beare Consulting Engineers)
In Timber Engineering Notebook (TEN) No. 21, the engineered wood product known as cross-laminated timber (CLT) was introduced. This latest article in the TEN series provides a more detailed introduction to the applications and use of CLT as a structural timber product, including structural benefits and benefits to the construction process.
The ‘Wood and Armer’ equations are well established as a means of accounting for torsional moments in bridge slabs. In this article, a potential source of misinterpretation of the original equations is identified and corrected. The misinterpretation is shown not to have significant implications for design, but may be of consequence where the Wood and Armer equations have been used for assessment. A number of other inconsistencies are identified and a revised set of equations is proposed.
Replacement of stone on historic buildings may be required for numerous reasons. These include age-related decay and weathering, poor workmanship in terms of material choice or setting, defective fixings, and structural failure. The main aim, in assessment, will be to retain the historic fabric where practical. However, the decision to replace will depend to a great extent on having a clear understanding of the significance of the stone, both individually and within the context of the element that it is part of, its predicted life or durability and its cost.