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I MAKE no apology in bringing this paper to your notice, because I believe that the Draughtsman's point of view in the methods of calculation and preparation of details for modern steel-frame buildings is a most important one and is seldom considered. W. Cyril Cocking
Publish Date - 1 April 1915
IT is now generally recognized that a well-equipped series of shops is an absolutely essential factor in a successful industrial concern. It is as important as the machinery and plant and the site. It is not difficult to prove that these will be crippled by being housed in unsuitable buildings where the first must be limited in efficiency, underdriven, and wastefully or harmfully worked, and the second so badly utilized as to counteract its peculiar merits. To be completely efficient, it is necessary to be as thoroughly up to date in the buildings as in the plant, for to be up to date means to have taken advantage of every development and improvement in machinery and organization, and, other things being equal, indirectly it is the most important factor in success. Percival M. Fraser
IT has been recently stated, with some truth, within these walls that we do not often hear of failures occurring in reinforced concrete buildings after their completion, but generally during their erection, and although all failures cannot be attributed to defective forms, yet the forms are to blame in a sufficient number of cases as to obviate the necessity of claiming your indulgence for introducing this subject of forms for concrete work to your notice as an important element in securing efficiency in construction, and not merely in the utilitarian aspect. Although it is not the practice, in England at any rate, for engineers to design their forms, that being generally left to the contractor, it is my belief that an engineer, for his own protection, should at least set out some typical portion of the forms for the contractor’s guidance, thus doing all he can to circumvent failure in this direction at any rate. Of course good forms alone will not ensure safety, and we have to use vigilance likewise in detecting bad work, bad design, and bad material. For, as Lieut.-Colonel Winn has pithily put it, "A fool with a shovel may absolutely defeat the most elaborate calculation involving the calculus." Allan Graham
RE: the Concrete Institute
In correctly made concrete the amount of sand should be just sufficient to fill the voids in the coarse material, and the amount of cement just sufficient to fill the voids in the mixture of sand and coarse material and to coat all the particles with very thin jointing layers. It is a rational assumption that such concrete will give the maximum of strength with the minimum of cost, and if such assumption be justified by experimental results it follows at once that the proportioning of concrete-forming materials is of the utmost importance. Greater strengths can be obtained by the use of excess of cement, as in the case of the ordinary mix of 1-2-4., but the increase in strength is less than the increase of cost of materials, and is, therefore, only justified in particular cases. John A. Davenport
In these days the testing of cement is no longer exclusively in the hands of the expert, but almost every user of cement in any quantity now carries out his own tests on the material he buys; or has such tests made for him by his own staff. In some instances this has meant that the cement is judged on results obtained by very inexperienced persons. It may be an excellent thing, from the users' point of view, to test his own supplies, but there is a danger that the practice may lead to numerous unfounded complaints and disputes as to the quality of those supplies. W. Laurence Gadd
Your Committee has held several meetings, and being of the opinion that it is advisable to publish a Standard System of Measurement for Reinforced Concrete work recommends:- "That the method of measurement as compiled by your representatives and as copy enclosed be adopted, signed by the signatory bodies, printed, registered at Stationers Hall and circulated among the Members of the Concrete Institute and of the Quantity Surveyors"
ON February 26th last we listened to a most interesting paper by Mr. Cyril W. Cocking, on "Calculations and Details for Steel-frame Buildings from the Draughtsman's Standpoint," and, as you wlll remember, a lengthy discussion took place, necessitating an adjourned meeting to enable members and others to take part. A great number of interesting and useful points were raised in the paper, but there was one matter that was very summarily dealt with, particularly during the discussion, which, to my mind, as an Architect, is of the utmost importance-viz., the position of the Architect in relation to the buildings he is called upon to design and carry out. William E. A. Brown
I think no apology is needed in offering the Institute a paper on pillars, with special reference to secondary and accidental stresses. It has been obvious for some time that there is a desire for more information on such matters as the correct eccentricity on columns, this being noticeable, for example, in Mr. Cocking's paper on steel-frame buildings, and in the discussion which followed it. Oscar Faber
As Bacon said of Death, so may it be said of this evening's subject: "All Men fear it as children fear to go into the dark." Mr Green