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Resilience is often colloquially described as ‘the ability to bounce back’ after a disaster or mishap.
In the face of the diverse range of hazards it is exposed to, a resilient community or society will have developed abilities to:
Successfully mitigate against prospective hazards
Prepare for disaster event scenarios
Resist the effects of disaster events
Respond to these effects
Recover from such effects in a timely and efficient manner
Societal resilience is achieved through the preservation and restoration of essential functions provided by the built environment and societal organisation.
Effective preparatory risk management is essential for identifying potential hazards and threats. It can facilitate development of appropriate abilities before an extreme event, which aid an adequate response to events and help with successful recovery from them. It also allows for adaption to evolving requirements and the effects of a changing environment.
It is important to note that recovery may possibly involve some degree of short-term functional impairment. This depends upon the severity of the shock or mishap experienced. It can also be influenced by any economic (or other) constraint which might apply.
A resilient community or society aspires to have the ability to do several things. Firstly, it must be able to effectively mitigate against a prospective disaster. Mitigation means taking measures which avoid, reduce, resist and aid recovery from extreme short-term events or incidents. These include:
Extreme weather events
Secondly, a resilient community or society must be able to adapt to longer-term changes in use, environment or other circumstances. Examples of this would be societal changes or the effects of climate change. Successful adaption means that:
Potential hazards and threats are identified and evaluated. This should be done by using effective preparatory risk management and vulnerability assessment procedures
Appropriate preparatory activities are undertaken. These are used to mitigate, prepare for, resist, respond to and recover from an extreme event or incident. They should allow for adaption to longer-term evolution in requirements, a changing environment, potential hazards, threats and identified vulnerabilities
Appropriate societal, economic and environmental resources are available to implement the preparatory activities and response actions
Structural engineers are vital to the development of resilient societies. Their role is to consider and address the issues associated with structural resilience and structural adaptation.
Structural resilience is the ability to rapidly resume the use of buildings and structures following a shock incident or event. To successfully do this, it is essential to embrace all the associated aspects of:
Avoidance, diminution or removal of identified threats or hazards
Preparation for disaster event scenarios
Resistance to the effects of disaster events
Recovery following such an event
Structural resilience needs to encompass:
The ability to rapidly recover functionality following a short-term shock or extreme event
All the aspects of preparation for and recovery following such a shock event, as listed above
Appropriate design for life safety and environmental protection, eg by addressing disproportionate collapse requirements
Appropriate damage limitation design to reduce the need for repairs or reconstruction after a shock or extreme event. This effectively reduces the life-cycle environmental impact of the building or constructed asset and improves life-cycle sustainability
Recognition of the spectrum of severity of potential events in the context of causing disruption to the intended social function of the structure. The time and effort involved in recovering from such events should also be considered
Recognition of the spectrum of severity of potential extreme events in the context of posing significant life-safety risks and resulting in associated damage. The extended time and effort involved in recovering from such events should also be considered. This might include possible partial or total demolition and reconstruction
Design to facilitate both maintenance and recovery works
Structural adaptation is the ability to meet gradually changing circumstances or the evolution of performance requirements. It needs to encompass the ability of a system or structure to sustainably accommodate such changing circumstances.
Longer-term adaptions might include changing demands placed upon a structure. They might relate to ongoing environmental changes and evolving societal and functional needs and performance requirements.
Key focus areas for structural engineers include:
Human safety and environmental protection
Damage limitation design to facilitate the rapid resumption of use of structures after a disaster
Urbanisation, including the development of megacities
Responding to humanitarian crises and natural hazards
Efficient and effective resource use
Mitigating the effects of terrorism
Tom Newby has spent the last 14 years forging careers in two fields – structural engineering and humanitarian aid. His dual roles have seen him work in Bath, Haiti, New York, the Philippines, London and Nepal.
This project involved the design and construction of a structure comprising four tunnels with a total length of 2434m. An initial in situ concrete scheme was changed to a corrugated steel plate assembly, enabling improvements in material transportation and construction.
A discussion of culture and practice in design relating to material efficiency.
EEFIT's report covering its mission following the mw 6.2 Amatrice, Italy earthquake, including seismological and geotechnical observations.
A report detailing good practice in the use of drones and omnidirectional cameras in post-disaster reconnaissance.
This report details seismic damage and assesses the effectiveness of strengthening devices.
Standard ASCE/SEI 4-16, presents the analytical framework to develop a risk-informed approach to the design of nuclear structures under earthquake motions.
This report provides general guidelines for the structural design of blast-resistant petrochemical facilities, updating the 1997 original edition.
Written specifically for the young professional and addressing a growing need for a long service life with minimal maintenance, Concrete Durability takes a whole new look at the whole-life performance of structures.
Provides engineers with the fundamental principles and concepts in materials and structures in order to be able to design structures to resist failures.
In November 2012 EEFIT launched its first ever return mission to an earthquake affected site. This paper presents an overview of the post-disaster emergency phase and transition to reconstruction in the L'Aquila area after the earthquake.
Jo reflects on her own career and looks ahead to 2050, discussing the role structural engineers play in creating safe, sustainable, inclusive and resilient cities.
This report is an outcome of the analysis of data and information related to the damage and post-earthquake reconstruction of residential buildings, collected during the field survey by the authors, in light of 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence.