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INFLUENCE lines can be best studied and understood by first considering a simple span having a single unit load travelling across it and noting the variation of stresses in all its members. D.Y. Hill
SIR,-Professor W. G. Sutton’s contribution on rivet groups in The Structural Engineer for September adds materially to the understanding of the subject.
WHEN a beam is loaded in any manner, it is throughout its length subjected to bending and shearing stresses of varying magnitudes, and at any given section in the beam these two stresses give rise to combined stresses. In certain cases, where the bending and shearing stresses both reach their maximum values at the same section (cf., the fixed end of a cantilever), the combined stresses may attain values considerably higher than those due to pure bending and shear alone, and in a practical design an investigation should always be made to ensure that these combined stresses do not exceed the permissible values. F.H. Thomas