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Sir,-In Mr. Bridges’ Paper on “Reinforced Concrete for Colliery Surface Plart,” published in your April issue he states “There are many difficulties which make piling expensive and very often impracticable, such as: obstruction by overhead wires and pipe lines to free movement of the piling frame; the necessity for keeping open certain wagon roads for coal wagons; and vibration and consequent disturbance of existing structures.”
ALTHOUGH the formulae of B.S.S. 449-1935, and the L.C.C. Code should now be used by the designer, the Rankine formula has, for certain purposes, stood the test of time since it was first evolved by Gordon, Schwarz, and Rankine about 1860.
IN foundation work the problems involved are, the carrying capacity of the ground, the difficulties of reaching the chosen depths presented by the geological formations, possible disturbance by future work, and protection of adjacent shuctures during construction.