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IT is proposed in the following pages to write generally on the theoretical and practical aspects of elastic stability. No doubt part, of the ground covered is already familiar, but it is considered necessary to include the elementary principles, so that there may be as few gaps as possible in the argument. Thus we may have some idea of the theoretical effects of various combinations of loading and end conditions and it may then be seen to what extent we are justified in relying on any particularly fixed or stlereotyped method of design for such a wide range of conditions. A. Noel Procter
Dr J. G. M. Wood (F)(Structural Studies & Design Ltd) The complex build-up of the cable-stays with multiple strands in the PE pipes with cement grouting and then wrapping at Houston (Fig 15 in the paper) contrasts with the simple, spiral strand wire ropes traditionally used for cable-stayed bridges and suspension-bridge hangers in the UK. I was involved in the retensioning and replacement of cable-stays on the Wye and Erskine Bridges and the early replacement of hangers on the Severn Bridge. The problems experienced on these bridges included creep of the cables due to bedding-in of the spiral strands necessitating retensioning (e.g. Erskine Bridge sagged by about 750mm because of cable-stay creep). The fatigue problems at the lower socket ends of some of the hangers on the Severn Bridge were associated with high axial stress ranges and secondary bending effects, which can be avoided with more appropriate design and detailing. Similarly, the local socket neck strand corrosion problems experienced can be avoided by improved detailing without the elaboration of wedge anchors and grouting used in the VSL system. Because the socketed hangers were inspectable and replaceable, the problems were picked up early and remedied.