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The Fourth Meeting of the Session was held at the Great Northern Hotel, Leeds, on Wednesday, 18th December, 1946, when a series of debates took place, the subjects being:
Bored Piles V. Precast Piles.
Prefabricated Houses V. Traditional Houses.
Welded Fabric V. Mild Steel Bars.
The least satisfactory part of retaining wall design is estimating the load acting on it due to its soil backing. In the past it was recognised that the methods used in such calculations were unsatisfactory, but in default of better, have continued in use. However, the accumulated data and experience of engineers have provided modern approaches of proved reliability.
Dr. Fritz von Emperger, Honorary Member of the Institution, died in Vienna on the 7th February, 1942. Born on the 11th January, 1862, the son of an Austrian technician, he took his degree of civil engineering in 1885 after his studies at the Technical Universities, Prague and Vienna. In 1889 he went to the United States and worked there as a Consulting Engineer in New York until 1897. He built the first reinforced concrete bridge in the United States and introduced there the Melan-Emperger system, combining steel construction and concrete. Emperger returned to Europe in 1897 and lectured at the Technical University till 1902; afterwards he worked as a Consulting Engineer and at the same time wrote publications on reinforced concrete. He founded and edited the well-known periodical “Beton und Eisen,” the diary “Beton Kalendar” and the “ Text Book on Reinforced Concrete,” whose many volumes have already appeared in their 4th edition.