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Many structural engineers have for a long time been convinced that the effect of casing steel beams in concrete in the manner which has obtained for many years with the filler-joist floor, has a strengthening effect upon the floor and that it is safe to design the steelwork in such floors upon higher stresses than the extreme fibre stress of 7.5 tons per square inch which is usually specified.
Ewart S. Andrews
AS in our own country, so in the Netherlands, the supply of dwellings for the people in
pre-war days was by means other than through the instrumentality of local authorities. In England and Wales prior to 1909, 98 per cent. of the houses for the needs of the working classes, were provided by private enterprise of various kinds and without aid from public funds. Although a certain stimulus to the housing activities of local authorities was given by the Housing and Town-Planning Act of 1909, the result of their efforts in the provision of new houses was comparatively small.
Sir Charles T. Ruthen
0F all structures which man has made to satisfy his needs, the bridge is that in which he has been aesthetically most successful, and, perhaps, structurally least. From the beginning of recorded history, you have in long succession the tale of bridges breaking down and swept away, till the accident becomes a commonplace compared with the failure of other structures. You have further a limit to effort, very clearly marked; the effort to obtain height or majesty through width or length of unbroken emptiness in other forms of structure, has been an effort successfully progressive and often rapidly progressive. But bridges, even for the overcoming of comparatively small obstacles, were felt to be a special triumph. There was a temptation to make them do more than the art of the time allowed. One can point to a score of places in Western Europe (Avignon is the most famous) where th3 effort was vanquished, and to hundreds where what looks to-day like the surmounting ot but a trifling span or height was looked on as a marvel, and carries to this day some nickname connoting astonishment.