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THE Method of specifying the proportions of Concrete material by so many loose volumes of gravel to a definite number of volumes of cement has much to commend it, for it is easy of application. To those using concrete, however, it has been apparent for a long time that to get the best results, those proportions must be determined by having regard to the nature of the aggregate. Many examples can be recalled in which a "lean" concrete has developed much greater strength than a much "fatter" one. A recent method of investigating the matter, especially by American Engineers, is to determine how much mortar, composed of three sand to one cement, will fill the voids in the aggregate of broken stone or gravel and to specify the quantities accordingly. These methods are more or less empirical and this investigation has been undertaken to ascertain, if possible, some definite standard of aggregate material; a more or less ideal substance, towards which one might approximate. Harry Jackson
HAVING treated in broad general outline the subject of housing in the Netherlands, and having set out the difficulties that have been encountered in the course of the efforts made by the Dutch people to grapple with the various phases of this complex problem, and explained the measures invoked by the authorities in their endeavours to correct, the troubles produced partly by neglect in the matter of housing extending over a generation or two, and partly as the direct result of the great war, I venture to believe that it will be of general interest briefly to examine the methods of building adopted by the Dutch authorities, and the character, type and standard of the housing accommodation provided during the period particularly under review at the moment. Sir Charles T. Ruthen
There are two subjects which may be said to have gripped the imagination of engineering scientists for the past 70 years; they are the strength of columns and the fatigue of metals. Both have this in common that the further they are investigated the more we realise that, they are more complex than we previously realised, and that many of our previous ideas upon them have to be scrapped or revised. Hon. Editor