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FOLLOWING Coulomb, a great number of papers appeared on Retaining Wall Design, until by 1930 the theoretical basis of earth pressure against stiff walls due to failing soil had largely been established. In contrast, little was known about the values of the soil constants to be used in the theory, or the influence of the type and degree of wall movement on the distribution of pressure on the structure. In consequence, theories were mainly confined to the classroom, while empirical rules or semi-empirical use of simple theorics served the practical basis of design. P.W. Rowe
A BATTENED strut is built up from two or more main members*, which carry the axial load, and which are held at a fixed distance by cross-members. F. Koenigsberger
This month's letters consider the future of the built environment, the sustainability of timber as a building material, and offer further views on subsidence, among other topics.