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The Structural Engineer

MR. EWART S. ANDREWS, proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. Pugsley for his paper, said that when it was submitted to the Literature Committee he had strongly recommended its acceptance, because he had realised that it dealt in a very clear and able manner with a number of points upon which the ordinary text books and publications were strangely silent. This kind of paper was not produced by any institution here other than the Institution of Structural Engineers, and if the Institution could maintain such a standard its future should be very bright. Mr. Pugsley had dealt with the subject in a particularly able manner, and the paper would give a great deal of information, help and encouragement to those younger members of the Institution who took a keen interest in this type of work. Discussing Fig. 7 in the paper, MR. ANDREWS said that the important thing to remember-Mr. Pugsley had hinted at it, but it was not often realised-that XX and YY were not the principal axis of the section, and therefore, the load applied at the point A was not really eccentric in the direction of the weakest axes of the section. The weak axis of this section was practically in a line about there (indicating). The point A was almost exactly central on that axis. The only eccentric stress introduced was in the direction of the strong axis, and he was certain that one should distinguish between the eccentricities on the weak axis and the eccentricities on the strong axis. Taking the simple case of an ordinary I section, he doubted very much whether an eccentricity applied at the flange was nearly so serious as our ordlnary calculatiorts would have us believe. With regard to the single angles, he did not think it was sufficiently well known that the American Bureau of Standards had published a very excellent report; dealing with actual tests on single angle members bupported in various ways. He himself had wrltten an article in the Institution’s “ Journal ” two or three years ago dealing with these tests, and there were to be found in the back numbers of the “ Journal ” the actual test results on angles such as were used in roof trusses, and he suggested that it would be very much better to fix our designs on those results than to attempt to apply the ordinary concentrically loaded strut formula to them, because the test results bore but what practical people would probably have expected, namely, that the truth was somewhere approximately half-way between the theoretical value and the value which neglected the eccentricity altogether.

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The Structural Engineer

The subject of the aesthetic design of ferro-concrete is one which appears to be attracting more attention day by day. Not only has a stream of articles on this particular topic been appearing in technical journals during the last few years, but for both engineers and architects the question is one of the most profound interest. In fact; it is not too much to say that the future relations of the two professions is very largely dependent upon the degree with which it will be found possible to utilise modern methods of building construction in such a manner that not only the claims of utility but the claims of art are duly satisfied. There is evidence that structural engineers as a body are fully alive to the importance of the asthetic aspect of design, and any efforts, which may be made with the object of encouraging the artistic treatment of ferro-concrete will be generally welcome among them. Special interest will therefore attach to the first award for the Brenforce Travelling Scholarship which has recently been instituted. The Scholarship is awarded and governed by the Council of the Institution of Structural Engineers, and is devoted to the furtherance of the very purposes which have just been mentioned. The candidates were invited to prepare designs for a specified subject. In the preliminary sketch competition at which the subject was first disclosed they were given twelve hours in which to work “en loge,” and get out an “esquisse” design which they were permitted to develop in their own homes, a period of four weeks being given to them to prepare such drawings as they would think fit to supply had they actually been commissioned to submit a design for the subject in question. The Scholarship is awarded every three years, and is of value £300. The successful candidate will be required to travel for forty-two clear days on the continent of Europe, outside the United Kingdom, in order to study the development of aesthetic design in concrete and reinforced concrete buildings, and upon his return he will be asked to submit a typewritten précis giving the results of his researches. The first award of the Scholarship has recently been made. The jury of assessors comprised Mr. H. J. Deane, President of the Institution of Structural Engineers; Mr. A . Trystan Edwards, Professor J. Husband, Lieutenant-Colonel J. Mitchell Moncrieff and Mr. H. D. Searles-Wood, and they have awarded the Scholarship and gold medal to Mr. J. Blackett, and the silver and bronze medals to Mr. S. H. Suthers and Mr. Edwin Williams respectively.

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The Structural Engineer

The scheme for the Channel Tunnel raises the four following problems :- l. A geological problem. 2. A technical problem concerning the boring of the Tunnel and the working of the railway which will be installed in it. 3. A financial problem. 4. A legislative, administrative and diplomatic problem. Mons. Yves Le Troquer

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The Structural Engineer

IN the last article of this series I depicted a structure which, if it could be erected at all, could only come into being in a somewhat distant future. It appeared a logical procedure, however, to indicate some of the possibilities of ferro-concrete when this material is put to a supreme test. But even in this example, while ostensibly devoting myself to a problem of construction, it was incumbent upon me to envisage the social circumstance which could alone justify it. This social aspect of engineering must ever be present in the, mind of the designer. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to say that the neglect of it has been the principal cause of the uglification of our cities which has gradually been taking place ever since the industrial age began. Figures 12 and 13 illustrate two towns which are comparable to one another inasmuch as all the buildings, except those used for industrial purposes, are exactly the same in each. An essential difference, however, is shown in the disposal of the industrial buildings themselves, for in one example these are collected together in a factory zone separated from the built-up portion of the town by a belt of trees, while in the other the factory buildings are scattered about wherever possible sites presented themselves. It will be observed that even open spaces, the enclosure of public squares, have been sold by the ground landlord for industrial purposes, while at the backs of the houses also space which originally was devoted to yards or gardens has been given up to tall factory blocks, designed without any regard to their architectural neighbours. A. Trystan Edwards

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The Structural Engineer

The idea of an Architects’ Defence Union originated with Mr. E. M. Wimperis, F.R.I.B.A., who submitted it to the Practice Standing Committee of the R.I.B.A. in 1913. Subsequent events and their consequences hindered progress for some years, but the idea remained and was taken up afresh in. 1925 when a scheme for the formation of a Defence Union distinct from the R.I.B.A. or any other professional body was formulated by the Practice Standing Committee and approved by the Council of the R.I.B.A. On October 18, 1926, at an open meeting of architects and surveyors the scheme was adopted, and the acting Committee was authorised to extend its scope and to complete arrangements with the Cornhill Insurance Co., Ltd., for the issue of an insurance policy covering the protection proposed to be given to its members by the Union.

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