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Mr. J. H. H. Williams(F) : Mr. Thomas has mentioned the importance of wall ties in cavity construction, but he did not mention the question of durability. It is my concern that we should not build into structures members which may become dangerous in sixty or even one hundred years' time because of the failure of some small but vital part which cannot easily be seen by future surveyors. Wall ties in cavity walls fall into the category of a humble but essential part contributing to the stability of large
panels of masonry and as they cannot easily be inspected I believe that they should be designed for a period well in excess of the anticipated life of the building. Some engineers and authorities insist that non-ferrous or stainless steel ties are used in cavity walls in high rise structures, while others, less informed, may be misled by the compliance of galvanized wire ties with the British Standard.
The President: This must have been a most exciting job with many problems to overcome. It was a congested site, with restrictions of allowable pressures on the ground. The factors which influence the engineering design are quite amazing; I think you said that it was imperative to obtain a uniform pressure on the ground and that that particular restriction to some extent led you to adopt the curve columns.
In the behaviour of structures under earthquake, the most effective role is played by the fundamental period of vibration of structures because it is one of the main parameters to determine the earthquake forces applied to the structure and it specifies the dynamic stability of the structure. In this paper'a simple approximate formula is proposed to calculate the fundamental period of vibration. The calculation with this formula is very short and easy. No mathematical background is necessary to apply the formula. In addition to the derivation and discussion of the formula, several examples showing its application are given.