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All the fixed structures in the North Sea are at present supported on piles driven into the sea-bed and, as the water gets deeper and the waves get higher, they are furthermore anchored in the sea-bed to resist uplifts almost as big as the down thrusts. The structures do, of course, differ in layout and in detail, depending upon
specific requirements and environments, but they remain in principle the same and are to a great extent governed by the necessity of pile driving. Structures could also be supported on a concrete raft resting on or in the sea-bed and it can be shown that it is an advantage to have the raft sunk into the sea-bed. A method for sinking the raft to a required depth below sea-bed level is proposed and the tool necessary for the job is being developed at present.
Frode J. Hanson
The training methods used in France for consulting engineers, the scope of their professional activities and the relations that they maintain with their clients, associated professions and the State are described. The profession of consulting engineer within the general framework of engineering (ingénierie), is defined and his
training is described. The organization of his office (i.e. insurance, and his relations with architects and others and with the State) is discussed.
A new analytical method of determining the maximum strength of steel beam-columns is given. In-plane failure under uniaxial moment loading is investigated and full account is taken of imperfections such as residual stresses and initial curvature. Good correlation with existing experimental results is established. A novel form of design presentation is derived which permits all four beam-column parameters to appear on a single chart. The important concept of the stocky column is introduced. These are members which can be designed for full plasticity without the need to investigate stability effects.