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The Structural Engineer

The 15 m to 45 m (50 ft to 148 ft) span range is representative of the majority of bridges encountered in motorway, principal and trunk road schemes. The difference between an expensive and an economical bridge originates from a few very simple decisions at the design stage. The purpose of the paper, therefore, is to offer a few suggestions at a practical level the adoption of which should generally lead to economic solutions for the more regular bridge situations. M.V. Woolley

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The Structural Engineer

President's Diary The President and Mrs. Creasy will continue their round of visits to UK Branches and Sections and greatly look forward in the coming weeks to meeting members, their ladies and guests at the annual social functions. On Friday 5 April Mr. and Mrs. Creasy will be attending the annual dinner and dance of the Wales Branch in Swansea; on Friday 19 April they will be in Norwich for the annual dinner and dance of the East Anglia Section and on Friday 26 April the President and Mrs. Creasy will join members of the Southern Counties Branch at their annual dinner and dance at Lyndhurst. The President will be representing the Institution at the annual dinners in London of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects on 23 April, and of the Institution of Civil Engineers on 25 April; also at a luncheon of the British Precast Concrete Federation on 30 April.

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The Structural Engineer

A technique for the automatic and interactive design of connections in structural steelwork using a computer with visual display facilities is described. The program can deal with inclined, oblique and eccentric beams with welded end plates and high-strength friction-grip bolts. A design example is given to illustrate the facilities provided. The discussion includes an economic assessment which indicates that the cost of using the technique is low. M.G. Moore and D.M. Brotton

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The Structural Engineer

The fourth in the series of surveys of chartered engineers undertaken by the CEI was conducted in the summer of 1973 and the Survey was published in December last. Copies of the full survey are obtainable from the CEI, 2 Little Smith Street, London SW1P 3DL price f4.50.

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The Structural Engineer

Several bridges which have been designed by the author's firm are described. The reasons for the choice of designs are given and the methods used in analysis and some detail problems are described briefly. Emphasis is placed on choosing a simple and natural design to suit the particular bridge problem and developing this in a sympathetic way with regard to the final appearance; careful attention being given to details. G. Duncan

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The Structural Engineer

A brief description is given of the finite-element method used to obtain the distribution of clamping pressure at the interfaces of lap joints. Relations are presented which enable the pressure to be calculated for ranges of the geometrical parameters likely to be found in structural steelwork joints, and the significance of the results obtained is discussed in relation to the strength of steels and the grades of bolts in common use. M.S.G. Cullimore and J.B. Eckhart

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The Structural Engineer

The design and construction of a number of short span road bridges which were built to replace older structures in an urban area are described. G.T. Williams

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