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Shells constructed by lifting a flat square lattice into a doubly curved shape are a recent form of construction. Such a shell of four times greater span than any previous examples had to be completed in 18 months for an exhibition. This paper describes the engineering design. It attempts to show how the loads were defined, how the structure was modelled and tested both physically and mathematically, and how these models were used to determine the construction details. The design process had to be evolved to derive sufficient understanding so that the decisions could be made by the critical dates.
E. Happold and W.I. Liddell
When specimens of wood with seemingly similar characteristics are tested, the strength results usually show high variability. This is attributed to two major sources:
(a) Primary sources or the material factors.
(b) Secondary sources or the human factors.
Daniel N. Nwokoye
Test results of nine stiffened panels loaded axially show that the Perry-Robertson formula accurately predicts the collapse load and the direction of collapse provided the imperfection term ©¯ is interpreted in a logical manner. A new expression for ©¯ is derived. Four other panels were tested in bending or with combined bending-axial loadings. Simple rules are also presented for the design of stiffened panels with these