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Dr. L. A. Clark has discussed (The Structural Engineer, Vol. 56A, Sept. 1978, p. 244) the complexity introduced into concrete bridge design by the temperature changes and differences specified in BS 5400: Part 2: 1978. Similar problems arise in the design of
composite bridge decks. An appropriate method of analysis and several worked examples have therefore been given in a Commentary on BS 5400: Part 5: Composite bridges.
The paper is concerned with the problem of predicting theoretically the strength of square thin-walled steel box columns that are pinended and loaded centrally at the ends. Interaction between yielding, local buckling (possible in all four component plates), and overall buckling makes this a difficult problem to solve rigorously. An approximate, and correspondingly economical, method of solution is presented and is used to analyse a range of cases. Local buckling of the plate elements is allowed for by the technique of using an appropriate average compressive stress-strain curve.
New investment is being made in coalmining. Existing mines are being re-equipped to exploit further reserves, and new ones are being planned to open up newly discovered coalfields-in the case of Selby, sinking has commenced. Reference is made to previous papers which describe and illustrate post-1945 colliery reconstruction works: this paper deals with changes that have taken place since then.