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Mr D. Allen (M): The author has developed some useful curves, conveniently presented in his Table l. I agree with the philosophy of using the full cross-sectional properties for design; it has always been confusing to have to deal with effective sections, especially when the effectiveness is determined by the stress level. How simple to use one section for all computations!
The paper outlines the basic principles and design philosophy underlying the design of both bolted and welded joints. It emphasises the need for joint design to be consistent with assumed structural behaviour. The several kinds of bolt currently in use are defined, their strengths compared, and the various kinds of welded joint described. An outline of design procedures is given for joints using all three bolt types, together with an example of the design of an eccentric bracket. Moment connections, giving rise to combined shear and tension in the bolts are touched on, as are the origins of prying forces. An outline of design procedures for welded joints is given, with the same example of an eccentric bracket used to illustrate the differences berween bolted and welded joints. Practical and economic considerations are presented and the paper concludes with a number of typical details, again comparing bolted and welded solutions. F.H. Needham
This paper discusses the behaviour of typical residential building facade walls of brickwork, when they undergo differential settlement. I.A. MacLeod and S. A. Abu-El-Magd