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Mr. E. F. Glover (DTp): I have one question for Mr Hulme concerning the importance of the time element before the erection of temporary or permanent lining. Some experiments were made by the Building Research Establishment on the Kielder Dam Scheme, as part of the preliminary works, to establish how long it took to obtain a balance between the maximum pressure on the lining using minimum materials.
The paper describes an approximate method of allowing for the second order effects produced by axial forces in the members of multistorey, plane frames, unbraced against side-sway. The displacements and axial forces, given by a standard linear elastic analysis, are used to calculate an equivalent system of loads which, when applied to the frame, produce approximately the same additional deformations us would be cuused by the out-of-balance axial forces. A second linear elastic solution is then performed with the equivalent set of loads applied to the frame, and the complete solution obtained by superposition of the two linear elastic solutions. A check on the validity of the method is the accuracy with which the results can be used to estimate the elastic critical load of the frame.
It may have seemed as though every member of the Institution has submitted a solution of Pythagoras in this column, but we have two late entries from areas of the world that were coloured red in our old school atlas.