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The Structural Engineer

This paper describes the various automatic control options available in modern buildings. It includes the various options available to the services engineer of control at a number of levels-time, temperature, and space-in order to provide suitable comfort conditions with energy economy, The possibilities described include overall heating system control, internal limiting of temperature, external compensator systems, timeswitches with various facilities, optimum-start controllers, thermostatic radiator valves, and building automation systems. K.M. Letherman

The Structural Engineer

This paper identifies the major part that building plays in national energy conservation activities. It identifies the major ways in which energy is consumed and goes on to describe the part played by the form, fabric and fenestration of buildings in determining thermal comfort and economy. The influences of siting, size, shape, thermal response, insulation, ventilation, and fenestration, are described and examples given of the degree of significance of each. Professor Peter Burberry

The Structural Engineer

Although this note is based on the Institution of Structural Engineers 1975 Report, it is meant to be complementary to, rather than an extension of, the report; emphasis is placed on communication, rather than structural design. John J.C. Gregory

The Structural Engineer

The ratio in which primary energy consumption is divided lighting, air-conditioning, and heating, in a typical office building, presented. Methods of saving energy in the design of these services surveyed. Max Fordham

The Structural Engineer

This chart indicates normal education and training procedure for candidates aiming at either Membership or Associate-Membership of the Institution. There are alternative routes, notably the CEI Part 1 and Part 2 examinations, particulars of which are set out in the booklet Admission to corporate membership of the Institution of Structural Engineers.

The Structural Engineer

All members, when applying for admission to the Institution, sign a declaration that they will be bound by the provision of the Charter and Bye-Laws and by the Rules of Conduct. For the majority, the latter simply strengthen the duty that they in any case owe to themselves as professional engineers. For some members in their day-to-day work, however, the Rules call for the observance of long-standing conventions, ignorance or disregard of which places the professional reputation of a member at risk as well as reflecting adversely on the Institution itself.

The Structural Engineer

1. Conspectus The Standing Committee on Structural Safety was formed in the Spring of 1976. Four Reports have been issued and this is the fifth. The Committee always regarded its early years as experimental, since it was not possible, without operating experience, to predict the best way to use the time and effort available. Experience has now shown that there are at least two useful functions which such a committee could perform in the future. The first is to continue with the kind of work which has engaged the attention of the Committee since it began. The second is, when specifically called upon by the Institutions, to advise them on appropriate actions which they might take when a serious deficiency in the safety of a particular type of structure, or of a certain type of material used in structural construction, has appeared or is considered likely to appear. As far as the Committee is at present aware, there is only a small chance that such a fault will appear in the near future, but the probability can never be mathematically zero and the cost, if it should occur, could be very great, both in financial terms and in reputation.

The Structural Engineer

The paper describes various imporiani aspecis of the design and construction of the new Ibrox Siadium. S. Thorburn and K.C.W. Van der Lee

The Structural Engineer

CP 110 and/or CP 114, CP 115, and CP 116 As our readers will recall, the draft of the revision of CP 110 was issued for comment in February 1982. During the comment period, the Institution, in conjunction with the Institution of Civil Engineers, organised a number of symposia in different centres to discuss the proposals. In one of the papers introducing the discussion, Mr W. E. A. Skinner expressed his concern with the whole concept of limit state Codes. In the discussions that followed, various views were expressed, and there appeared to be some considerable support for the retention of the longer-standing Codes, CP 114, CP 115, and CP 116, referred to previously in this column. Since then, Mr Skinner, with two fellow members of the revision drafting committee (Mr J. E. C. Farebrother and Mr M. E. R. Little), has issued an invitation, through an insert in the October 1982 issue of the Journal, for support for a new approach to the drafting of Codes of Practice. They define the problem and state their aims as: Verulam