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The Structural Engineer

The paper presents a theory for predicting the behaviour of one-way spanning unreinforced masonry subjected to transverse lateral loading in which arching action may develop within the wall thickness. The paper compares the behaviour of such walls prior to cracking and post-cracking and demonstrates the effect of moisture movement strains, abutment stiffness, and material properties on the strength. A series of arching tests on wall elements is described and conclusions are drawn on the application of arching theory to design. C. Anderson

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The Structural Engineer

Details are given of a numerical investigation into the interface shear stresses occurring in composite plates under wheel loads. The results of the investigation are used to develop a simple design method for estimating such stresses in typical bridge-deck panels and to demonstrate the influence of various parameters on the accuracy of the method. K.R. Moffatt and Professor P.J. Dowling

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The Structural Engineer

An equilibrium method of predicting the ultimate capacity of plate girder webs containing corner openings and loaded in shear is presented and is based on the post-critical behaviour of such webs. Tests are presented to confirm that it is advantageous to locate the holes in the corners of webs along the compression diagonals and far away from the tension field. The predicted strengths using the proposed theory are compared with the observed strengths; the correlation based on some eight tests is found to be satisfactory. A convenient procedure for computing the ultimate shear capacity of such webs is suggested. R. Narayanan and N.G.V. Der Avanessian

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The Structural Engineer

Increasingly, structural engineers are encountering vibration problems in a range of structure types resulting from many forms of stimuli. Often the most severe serviceability criteria are those concerning human response to structural vibration or for interference with delicate instrumentation. The vibration may be impulsive, from events such as blasts or impacts, transient from passing traffic or movement of materials, continuous from machinery or services, or may be infrequent, random motion with a return period in terms of months or years for events such as storm winds. In many instances the vibration is accompanied by intrusive noise, or in some cases infrasound may induce motion sensation in humans, such that the subjective response of the people involved must be assessed not independently to noise and vibration but in one evaluation since the response is governed by each of the actions inextricably combined. Guidance is available for determination of probable human response to single or multifrequency linear vibration in one or several directions. An assessment method for human response to combined translational and rotational motions is also currently in use but, to date, methods for estimating the subjective response of humans to combined noise and vibration environments are not available. A.W. Irwin

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