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The pace of change seems to be growing ever faster for the average design engineer. In the last few years, we have changed from the easily understood, if not too accurate, working stress Codes to the less familiar, if more realistic, limit state Codes. Coupled with this change, there has been a rapid increase in the volume of research work at universities and other establishments, which has been incorporated into the design methods. For many the results, in terms of practical structures, seems to have meant a great increase in the design time and little change in the final structure.
In the UK, the design of unreinforced masonry to resist lateral loading is carried out by yieldline analysis. It is known that this is theoretically unsound, as it assumes the existence of plastic hinges which cannot exist in a brittle material. Nevertheless, it is often claimed that yieldline theory does give reasonable predictions of the lateral strength of masonry.
A finite element method of analysis for the flexural-torsional buckling of tapered, monosymmetric beam-columns is augmented to include the effects of continuous elastic restraints. The accuracy of the finite element method is demonstrated for uniform members by a comparison with an independent, closed form solution. The application to a beam-column with diaphragm restraints is presented, and a conservative design equation is proposed.