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Robert Tristram (G) writes: Some very interesting points have been raised by Dennis Waite and Donald Evans (5 September and 3 October). Few would disagree with the statement to the effect that Codes should be written for the acceptance of fools and the guidance of wise men. Also, it does seem that a great deal of innovative design is stifled by unimaginative and defensive approving authorities: the idea that an approving engineer might be of an altogether lower level of proficiency than the designer does give some cause for concern.
The stability of a beam may be seriously reduced when the beam is supported on seat supports that prevent only the tension flange from deflecting laterally. The buckling mode will then be distortional, with local web distortions at the supports increasing the lateral deflections during buckling. An elastic finite element analysis of distortional buckling is verified in the paper against experimental results for partial end restraint. The elastic analysis is then used to evaluate the critical load of a beam on a seat support under moment gradient. An inelastic extrapolation of the distortional buckling analysis is compared with test results on hot-rolled beams and is then used to study the relationship between the slenderness and inelastic buckling strength of a beam with a seat support. M.A. Bradford
An investigations of bearing capacity of plain and reinforced concrete blocks is described. The effects of distance between load and edge, footing and loading areas, height, base friction, and size effect, were studied. The test results are considered with those of previous research data, and a new design equation is proposed. Professor A.R. Cusens, Y.B. Wang and K.K. Wong