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The Structural Engineer

Engineers are increasingly dependent on technical software and consequently on the technical content of the software, yet little has been done by the engineering profession to influence its quality. This paper raises this as a crucial issue and recommends action. C.R. Kaethner

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The Structural Engineer

The principle of using hybrid blendings of traditional materials in structures to achieve the most successful results is well established in good buildings, particularly in locations where this flexibility in materials use is acceptable by building trades unions. This has been a continuing and developing trend in Australia, and the latest tall buildings are benefiting from the evolution of ideas along these lines. John J. Peyton

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The Structural Engineer

The paper starts with a look at the past, particularly from the end of the 18th Century, as a way of explaining the present position in engineering. In future, structures will be determined on energy costs, and the paper highlights the possible changes and the challenges. Edmund Happold

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The Structural Engineer

This paper examines the trends that may influence the future shape of engineering structures. Among the most important factors are: impact of the computer on analysis and design, developments in traditional materials and the introduction of new ones, advances in research, the adoption of limit-state structural design codes, new approaches to construction and, of course, the demands of society as influenced by both political and economic considerations. Resulting from these trends, some possible scenarios for the development of engineering structures on land, on sea and in the air are briefly sketched. Patrick J. Dowling

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The Structural Engineer

Since 1969 the TRANSRAPID, a high-speed magnetic levitation train system, has been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany and has been tested since 1984 on a 31.2km long test track. On the test track, a new world record of 435 km/h for passenger-transport magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicles has been reached. It is intended to erect the first operational line of this maglev train system between the airports of Cologne and Dusseldorf. Professor Dr.-Ing. Faulkner, Dr.-Ing. S. Droese and Dr.-Ing. V. Henke

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The Structural Engineer

Aspects of information technology in which major developments can be expected in the construction industry are communications, information systems, models and simulations, monitoring of building performance and reactive or ‘intelligent’ buildings. The development of domain knowledge models is anticipated. These with the associated databases, expert systems and algorithms will provide the problem-orientated information systems necessary to link professional activities. Information technology in design, the process of construction and the management of buildings is expected to change both the activities of the construction industry and its products. Geoffrey Hutton

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The Structural Engineer

Old bridges are becoming an increasing problem in engineering and in political terms. Britain probably has more old bridges than any other nation, chiefly because we must be the only country in the world which has not experienced an invasion during the road-building period. There is no doubt that politically we cannot afford to replace the bridges. Therefore they must be maintained and assessed. W.J. Harvey

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The Structural Engineer

Engineer’s point of view The civil engineer has to approach an old structure from his specific point of view. He is interested in conditions and details that are of no concern and may not be visible to others. Surveys made available to the civil engineer, for example by surveyors, may be helpful. They may provide general information and measurements, but they cannot relieve the engineer from his own thorough examination and documentation. Professor Dr.-Ing. Fritz Wenzel

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The Structural Engineer

The paper discusses the remarkable regeneration of the British steel industry and reviews some of the techniques that are now available to steelwork designers as they approach the end of the millenium. Typical elemental costs for a ton of erected steelwork and for an office building are given. Areas of opportunity for further economy by simplifying or reducing fabrication are identified, and a possible solution is suggested. Alternative forms of composite floor construction are considered and illustrated. Composite columns, fire protection, loading, light-gauge steelwork and computers are also considered. P.R. Brett

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The Structural Engineer

The paper discusses the importance of geometric sections with their significant increase in section modules and concurrent resistance to bending. The application of prestressing further massively increases the bending resistance. The other spin-offs of ductility, increased shear resistance are briefly mentioned. The paper encourages the application of reinforced hollow blockwork and stresses the need for further research in both prestressed and reinforced masonry. W.G. Curtin

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The Structural Engineer

The last session of the conference is entitled ‘Reflections’ and clearly intended for the speaker to express some views on the ideas and discussions put forward during the conference. To reflect, ponder or meditate according to one’s use of the dictionary requires one to consider deeply and to think about the subject. It should therefore differ from a summing-up of the key features of what has gone before. The person reflecting should have estabIished some context, or structured expectations, whereby to assess the matters about which he must think back. D.W. Quinion

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The Structural Engineer

This paper discusses first the role of the engineer, then some of the more relevant changes which seem to be taking place, and the factors to be observed in accepting and benefiting from the changes, and finally looks at developing attitudes and practices in quality assurance and control. James H. Armstrong

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The Structural Engineer

The structural engineering profession has long been known for the creative use of computers in engineering and design activities. Current developments in information technology offer the opportunity for even further improvement in the structural engineering and construction process. Kenneth F. Reinschmidt

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The Structural Engineer

We greatly look forward to extending a warm welcome to Glasgow to all the delegates and participants on the occasion of the 2nd Kerensky conference. The theme ‘Structures - today and beyond 2000’ reflects the exciting world in which structural engineers are now operating, and gives ample scope for the excellent papers, as well as the stimulating discussion generated. David W. Lazenby

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The Structural Engineer

Architecture has developed over the history of mankind and is the field of technology closest to structural engineering. For generations, human beings have been involved with buildings and cities as their home base. By seeking a safer and more pleasant environment, or in other words, as a result of pursuing a greater standard of living, mankind has developed various technologies. Dr. Kuniaki Sato

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The Structural Engineer

The paper deals with the relationship between the client and structural engineers in light of the Government’s policy to eradicate all forms of restrictive practice. The paper goes on to discuss the standard of service being achieved in light of the fee competition between consultants, and contrasts the lay client with the expert client. After mentioning the changes at PSA, which will make the Agency a major consultant in its own right, the paper ends with a discussion of professional liability and litigation. Bryan Jefferson

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The Structural Engineer

In his introduction to the memorial service held on 22 August 1984, Canon Trevor Beeson, Rector of St Margarets Church,Westminster, said of Oleg Alexander Kerensky: ‘A great engineer whose ability was exceeded only by his integrity. We salute him as one of the foremost bridge builders of the century and give thanks for the unique combination of vision, energy and technical skill that found expression in his vivid personality. We remember also his magnificent work in the design and construction of roads and in the development of modern transportation and we are challenged by the high standards he achieved and demanded in the profession to which he devoted his life. Bernard Wex

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