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The Structural Engineer

The Chairman I was interested when I read Mr Martin’s comments about the use of words. He said ‘unsafe conditions lead to hazards and risk of failure’ and Mr Jackson referred to earthquakes. Like most of you, I have been preoccupied with the disasters that have occurred in the world recently, particularly in Armenia, and I was interested to note that Dr. Bilham of the University of Colorado, who has been studying these matters, has reported that by the turn of the century there will be 100 cities in the world, which will have total populations of 290M. This is because of people migrating to the cities where perhaps there is enmployment for them. About 80% of those 290M people will reside in the developing world, and all those cities will be in areas where there is potential for major seismic activity.

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The Structural Engineer

In spite of the deplorable recent throwbacks at the Persian-Arabian Gulf and in the Baltic States, the last part of the 20th century will certainly get a favourable opinion in the books of history labelled with perestroika, renuification, independence. J. Schlaich, Professor D. Ing.

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The Structural Engineer

This meeting, held at the Institution on 14 February 1991, with Mr J. H. Armstrong, FEng (immediate Past President), in the chair, was arranged to help focus attention on the main issues in education which face us today. We are being pressed by the Government to assess the effectiveness of our educational programmes. The concept of educational standards is being promoted by the Construction Industry Standing Committee (CISC). The organisation is industry led and is the first body of its type to take an overview of educational standards for a set of professional disciplines - in this case, for the construction industry as a whole.

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The Structural Engineer

Flatness and tolerances in HSFG bolted connections We have received several replies to the concerns expressed by Mr J. Renshaw (19 March) regarding the effects of lack of flatness and any resulting gaps in HSFG bolted connections. Dr. A.P. Mann of Sale, joint author with Dr. L. J. Morrisof CIRIA Report 87 (which is concerned with this problem), was mentioned by Mr Renshaw. He has written to us with comments as follows: As explained in the CIRIA report, the significance of gaps between the plies of HSFG bolted joints really depends on a large number of factors. An engineer’s first option, before being concerned at the existence of gaps, should be to question why HSFG bolts are being used at all: in the case sited by Mr Renshaw of a simple beam-to-column joint transmitting shear, the use of grade 8.8 bolts would seem to be an acceptable substitute, so eliminating the presumed problem at a stroke. Verulam

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