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The Structural Engineer

Mr J. A. Baird (F) (Swedish Finnish Timber Council) Some years ago when I was involved with the design of lattice tubular steel portals with the Taylor Woodrow Group, I evolved a method of considering the U-frame effect of two portals connected by steel purlins at regular intervals. The effect was small but usually enough to limit the number of knee braces required to the bottom chord when in compression.

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The Structural Engineer

Mr P. Evans (Ove Arup & Partners) As noted in my colleagues’ paper, the site investigations included a sophisticated programme of pile tests to confirm the feasibility of forming enlarged footings to augered piles in the Woolwich and Reading Beds’. However, we did not quite start out in that way.

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The Structural Engineer

There is little doubt that, even if Britain were not to become far more closely integrated into the European system of the Single Internal Market, engineering education would still need to change radically. Professor P.B. Morice

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The Structural Engineer

Europe may sound like (and be intended to sound like) a single place. But, of course, it is not. It is a grouping of mature democracies with laws, institutions, and practices, developed over many centuries. Each and every country in Europe is different (profoundly different), and what may be appropriate in one could turn out to be disastrous in another. But although these differences do exist, there are certain elements which are common throughout and which must be understood by anyone wishing to practise engineering in any of the main European countries. P.R. Rice

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The Structural Engineer

The aim of the work described in this paper is to provide a practical method for second-order inelastic analysis for frame design. To this end, it is shown that gradual bending stiffness degradation of beam-columns before the attainment of the full loadcarrying capacity can be simulated by decreasing the stiffness of the pseudo end-rotational springs which are assembled to the beam-column stiffness matrix. The analysis is carried out by a simple incremental method. The modified stability-function-based equations with the presence of the end springs are used with one iteration for each load increment. The method showed excellent results and a noticeable improvement over the plastic-hinge method. The simplicity of the proposed method, and the low computer capacity and time needed, make it possible to use the program on personal computers without any special requirements. F. Al-Mashary and Professor W.F. Chen

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