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Local buckling of steel plates in compression is often the limiting design criterion for section design. Slenderness limits for plates, stated in Codes of Practice, dictate the form of section and frame analysis that may be used. These slenderness limits have been evaluated assuming free buckles and may be too conservative when the plate is in contact with a rigid medium, e.g. at the top flange of a composite beam or concrete-filled steel section. The evaluation of slenderness limits for elastic, compact and plastic buckling is complex and involves empirical input. This paper describes a method whereby slenderness limits may be evaluated in a rational way. The method is used to obtain slenderness limits for a variety of sections when the plate is in contact with a rigid medium. Professor H.D. Wright
Partial underpinning of semidetached houses With reference to previous correspondence (20 April and 18 May), Tom Hill, of Hampton- Upon-Thames, introduces the question of provisions which may be included in house deeds to safeguard owners’ interests where raft foundations are shared: This problem requires provision in the house deeds. The raft foundation causes one house to be structurally dependent on the other, similar to flats where owners share floors. Covenants are required to safeguard the interests of both owners. Verulam
Spectator terrace barriers are widely used to limit crowd pressures and thus prevent injury. Barrier strength requirements, configuration guidelines, test procedures and permitted crowd densities are stated in the Guide to safety at sportsgrounds, known as the ‘green guide’, published by the Home Ofice. The design requirements primarily stem from research following two crowd disasters - Bumden Park, Bolton, 1946, where 33 fatalities occurred on a terrace and at Ibrox Park, Glasgow, 1971, where 66 fatalities occurred on a crowded stairway. More recently, 95 fatalities occurred on a terrace at Hillsborough, Shefield, in April 1989. The most recent version of the ‘green guide’ was published in 1990. J.F. Dickie and G.K. Wanless