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This year, 1993, marks 50 years from the introduction of the pretensioned, prestressed railway sleeper. This paper describes some history of the early development of prestressed sleepers and links the design development with that of our Codes. The success of the prestressed sleeper is self-evident, but the paper does emphasise the successful way in which the prestressed sleeper copes with a most hostile working environment and provides an insight into the development of our design methods for prestressed concrete. H.P.J. Taylor
The paper describes the construction of the ventilation stack for the Wastes Encapsulation Plant at BNFL, Sellafield, setting down the reasons for selecting stainless steel instead of reinforced concrete. Detailed aspects of the design and analysis of the windshield and flues are given, along with contractual, fabrication and installation issues. D.A. Bloomer