Author: Tietz, S B;Waller, J A
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Tietz, S B;Waller, J A
In 1926, when the Institution first applied for a Royal Charter, there were criticisms of the conditions and requirements for membership. As a result, from 1933, all candidates were required to take a paper in drawing and design (even if exempted from theoretical papers by possessing an engineering degree or equivalent). In the following year the Institution received its Royal Charter and since that time has maintained its requirement that all candidates for corporate membership must demonstrate their competence in structural design in the Part 3 examination. Professor A.R. Cusens and Professor A.W. Beeby
On 4 May 1934, as the Institution was granted its Royal Charter, leading engineers could look back over their careers to see the extraordinary development of a whole range of promising new material technologies for building the infrastructure. The use of structural steel with riveted connections had become well established, and both bolted and site welded connections had been developed and were being tried out. Reinforced concrete construction was being widely used, and Freyssinet, having just completed the Plougastel Bridge in Brittany, had developed his prestressing system and was setting up manufacturing facilities for precast prestressed beams. The George Washington Suspension Bridge, with a mainspan of 1067 m, had just been successfully completed, showing the full benefits of high strength steel wire, and the Golden Gate Bridge, with a mainspan of 1280 m, was under construction. The world’s tallest building, the Empire State, had also recently been finished. P.R. Head
The great structures I shall be discussing have been largely the works of famous engineers, but the first and most popular of all was the work of a gardener's boy on the Duke of Devonshire's estate. The Great Exhibition of 1851, inspired by the Prince Consort, was housed in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. This was a huge conservatory designed by Joseph Paxton, and based on an earlier one he had built at Chatsworth for the Duke of Devonshire. The Crystal Palace was 1850 ft long (three times the length of St Paul's Cathedral) and, after being opened by Queen Victoria in 1854, was visited by 6 M people in the next 24 weeks! It was then transferred to a fine site on a hill at Sydenham in south London, where it remained in good use until it was destroyed by fire in 1936. Thus was created and lost a fairy palace for the people. Professor Sir Alfred Pugsley