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At their meeting on 23 May 1996 the Council of the Institution approved the introduction of an additional Rule of Conduct to make clear members’ obligations to the profession in respect of continuing professional development, as follows: ‘Members of the Institution shall have a duty to update and broaden their professional knowledge and skills on a continuing basis’.
The design of corbels using the strut-and-tie model entails a trial-and-error procedure in the determination of tension reinforcement. This is a laborious method and might also lead to unacceptable depth of the compression block or the vertical shear capacity being exceeded. This means that the whole procedure needs to be repeated until all design criteria are satisfied. F.A.N. Al-Shawi
A parametric study of hotspot stresses in multiplanar tubular XT-joints has been conducted in which 180 finite element analyses were performed. The study covers a wide range of joint geometries under various combinations of axial forces. The results of the analyses are presented as a set of equations expressing the stress concentration factor as a function of the relevant geometric parameters for various combinations of axial forces. A typical full-size steel multiplanar XT-joint was selected for experimental testing to verify the numerical analyses. A comparison is also made between the results obtained for multiplanar tubular XT-joints and those of the corresponding uniplanar T- and X-joints. It is found that, when all the braces of the multiplanar XT-joints are loaded simultaneously, the multiplanar effect is significant. When the out-of-plane braces are not loaded, the multiplanar effect is insignifcant for small a value when the comparison is made between the multiplanar XT-joints with uniplanar T-joints. S.P. Chiew, Professor C.K. Soh, A.K. Soh, T.C. Fung and W.M. Lee