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Mr A. N. Beal (M) (Thomason Partnership) This paper adds valuable experimental results to the database of concrete column tests, particularly for very high strength concrete. However, there is an unfortunate, misleading statement in the synopsis: 'These tests ... have indicated that the Codes are safe design documents for concrete strengths as high as 96N/mm²'. In fact, the tests reported in the paper covered only short-term loading and the 'conclusions' state that 'BS 8110 might not be conservative enough for long-term loading...'. Outside of the laboratory, very few concrete columns are subjected to only short-term loading: indeed, most real concrete columns are subjected to high proportions of long-term load, so this is a point of fundamental importance.
Heather Stanley recently became Managing Director of Yolles Partnership, the Canadian company, an unusual lead position for a woman in her mid-thirties in the construction industry. As Director of its first office in the UK since 1997, she is responsible for 22 staff. The post offered work on larger buildings and more management experience than her jobs to date. Kathy Stansfield
Bursting forces in columns are caused by cranked vertical reinforcement. Although these bursting forces are well documented, few Codes of Practice deal with the effects adequately. British, South African and American Codes are critically evaluated in this regard. An equation is developed to determine the amount of bursting steel required which is in the form of column ties. A finite element study and columns tests are carried out to evaluate the effects of the bursting forces and as a contribution to the design process. Recommendations are also given describing practical measures for design. M. Gohnert, C. Morris and K. Webber