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THEORETICAL DISCUSSION. In 1833 Clapeyron stated his law of general work: “For any frame of constant temperature and acted on by loads which are gradually applied, the actual work produced during deformation is independent of the manner in which these loads are created and is always half as great as ths work otherwise produced by forces retaining their full end values during the entire act of deformation.” H.W. Coultas
In contrast to driving bearing piles for which the direct resistance below the point often becomes greater than the frictional value that the sides can afford, sheet steel piles encounter the greater proportion of their resistance through friction between the ground and their side surface which is very considerable compared with the sectional area of the solid steel pile which can, however, transmit a very high driving force without becoming deformed. A. Hiley
Mr. M. B. Buxton, M.C., MA., A.M.Inst.C.E. (Member), proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. Frost for his paper, said that the Curnberland Hotel and its annexe constituted one of the largest buildings ever erected in this country, and by reason of the fact that it had bedrooms and living rooms situatcti all round the building, with no external lavatories and bathrooms -a system adopted in many of the Carlatlian and American hotels-it marked a great step forward. The paper and illustrations were of extraordinary interest, for they indicated the great difficulties duo to the site, in connection with the st.celwork and retaining walls, and the special construction adopted, and they indicated how those difficulties were overcome. The Institution was very proud indeed of the fact that one of its members had been appointed engineer for this great building. One might reasonably have expected that one of the well-known civil engineering firms would have been appointed. Mr. Frost was to be congratulated on his appointment, which had done honour to the Institution, as well as to himself.