Author: Kiat-Chuan, Seow;Sung-Pil, Choi;Yong, Pang Poh;Nam, Jimmy Tsen Chee;Peng-Hong, Lim
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Kiat-Chuan, Seow;Sung-Pil, Choi;Yong, Pang Poh;Nam, Jimmy Tsen Chee;Peng-Hong, Lim
In a recent field test, 100kg of bare high explosives (TNT equivalent) was detonated in free air to investigate the performance and behaviour of five sandwich blast doors. The bare charge pack, placed 1.5m above ground level, consists of 365 sticks of PE4 explosive (NEQ factor = 1.19). A single stick of COMP4 booster explosive with a length of detonator chord was placed at the centre of the pack; its purpose was to ensure complete initiation of the PE4 explosive. Blast doors were fabricated as sandwich panels with attendant locking mechanism and shear pins to resist the blast overpressure. Idealised pressure-time histories were used to design the blast doors. Each blast door, located equidistant from one another and arranged in a circle with the explosive charge at the centre, was subjected to different load intensities by positioning them at prescribed range from the explosive source. Details of the blast doors, experimental set-up, blast overpressure data and limited acceleration record are presented. Calculated peak overpressure values, though underestimated, were in agreement with measured data. All the blast doors survived the test, except for one door positioned closest to the explosive source; the excessive blast overpressure at this close range resulted in localised damage to the panel/locking mechanism area. However, the structural system of this door remained undamaged. T. S. Lok, BSc(Hons), PhD, CEng, MIStructE, Eur-Ing, PEng, MASCE, MIES Associate Professor, Nanyang Technological University, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
In Singapore, there is an increasing awareness that the waterfront is an asset and the proximity to the water adds value to developments. Relocation of facilities and re-zoning of land to optimise usage in the limited space available has been part of urban planning in the island for some time. Land reclamation is becoming more and more necessary not only to increase land masses for the growing population but also to create lifestyle living and cater to an increasingly affluent society. Redevelopment of the existing Keppel Shipyard into a proposed residential, recreational and commercial area is one such development to maximise the use of land next to water. Location of the site adjacent to a calm and well sheltered harbour at the fringe of the open sea makes it unique and ideal site for exciting waterfront housing and gracious lifestyle. This prime site has a 1000m long waterfront with water access on two sides and spectacular views out to sea. The deep water conditions of the natural harbour theoretically does not lend itself readily to land reclamation. However, because space is tight and seafront proximity is precious, reclamation in this instance required a vertical seawall system to optimise frontage i.e. to bring the future development closer to the water. The appropriate system also needs to be robust and resilient so as to protect the land and the expected high cost of investment immediately behind it for many years to come. This paper presents the vertical seawall system used and the rationale for its selection. General design parameters and performance criteria are discussed. Special design considerations related to its performance requirement are highlighted. Construction techniques and methods used are presented. Kok Kim Lim, BEng, MEngSc, PE (S’pore), MIE Aust Serena Mui Cheng Yap, B.Eng (Civil) Hons, MIES, MSSSS Jacob Jordanus, B.Eng All T Y Lin South East Asia Pte Ltd