Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
26 October 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
(This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
When designing foundations for a structure there is a need to determine the bearing capacity of the soil. This applies to all forms of foundation, from a simple pad footing to a pile cap. The bearing stress capacity of the soil is the key variable that has a direct impact on the form and size of foundations. This Technical Guidance Note explains the principles of how bearing capacity of soils are determined and how it impacts on the design of foundations.
Recently, the technology behind post fix anchors has become increasingly complex. This guidance note has been developed in order to provide some clarity around the multitude of options that can be presented to a designer required to specify anchors.
This Technical Guidance Note concerns lateral loads that are applied to barriers and wheel axle loads from vehicles. Barrier loading is dealt with slightly differently to other forms of imposed loading. The nature of the loading can vary from people leaning against barriers to vehicles colliding with them at speed. Axle loading from vehicles has to be treated somewhat differently to other forms of imposed loading. While it is possible to assume a blanket area load to represent them, it is the point load from each wheel that needs closer attention.