Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
1 February 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
(This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
There are several variations and conditions the designer must be aware of when determining wind loads on structures. Based on Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Part 1-4; General Actions – Wind Actions , this note draws on the UK National Annex as it makes reference to wind speeds that are unique to the UK.
Dead loads (permanent actions) are defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the fixed materials it is supporting.
This note concerns the assessment of loads that apply to retaining structures, typically generated from soil. These forces primarily come into play during the design of retaining wall structures, but they can also be found in water-retaining structures and storage vessels. Updated October 2016.