Author: The Institution of Structural Engineers
2 May 2012
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The Institution of Structural Engineers
(This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)
It is essential for structural engineers to be able to express their ideas clearly through their designs. This note describes two common techniques used to draw in three dimensions.
Dead loads (permanent actions) are defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the fixed materials it is supporting.
When designing foundations (from a simple pad footing to a pile cap) there is a need to determine the soil's bearing capacity. This note explains the principles of how this is determined, and how it impacts on foundation design.