Author: D. Powell and P. McCafferty (Arup)
2 May 2012
Standard: £9 + VAT
Members/Subscribers, log in to access
An IStructE account gives you access to a world of knowledge. Create a profile to receive details of our unique range of resources, events and training.
D. Powell and P. McCafferty (Arup)
All articles published in the May 2012 issue. (NB Technical Guidance Note Level 1, No. 8 contained within this issue was updated in October 2016. For the updated article, see the individual article entry for this issue.)
This paper discusses a study undertaken by Arup on behalf of The Concrete Centre to investigate the embodied CO2 in typical structural frames for non-residential buildings. The study used the designed and measured schemes produced for the cost model studies published by The Concrete Centre in 2007-2008. The study explored the variations in embodied CO2 predictions. Two sources of variation were considered: the method of the analysis and the speciifcation. The study found that, within the uncertainties of the available data, there was little difference between the embodied CO2 of the different types of structural frames, but that once the frame type had been chosen, there was a significant opportunity for the structural engineer to reduce the embodied CO2 of the final structure by careful specification.
This paper presents an experimental programme conducted to investigate the behaviour of bonded-in BFRP bars loaded parallel to the grain of glulam members. Tensile pull-out tests were conducted to examine the effect of bonded length and bond stress-slip on the structural capacity of the connection. An analytical design expression for predicting pull-out capacity is proposed and the results have been compared with some established design equations. It was found that pull-out load increased approximately linearly with the bonded length, up to maximum which occurred at a bonded length of 15 times the hole diameter, and did not increase beyond this bonded length. The most significant failure modes were failure at the timber/adhesive interface followed by pull-out of the BFRP rod. Increased bonded lengths resulted in higher bond slip values compared to lower equivalent bonded lengths. The proposed design model gave the best predictions of pull-out capacity compared with other existing models.