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The structural use of adhesives

The structural use of adhesives

Guidance for structural engineers on the use of structural and semi-structural adhesives (with a polymetric matrix) and the behaviour of adhesive joints used in structural applications.

Date - 1 January 1999
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
The operation and maintenance of bridge access gantries and runways (Second edition)

The operation and maintenance of bridge access gantries and runways (Second edition)

Best practice guidance for bridge owners/operators, contractors, utility companies and structural designers considering the performance, function, serviceability and maintenance of new or replacement bridge access gantries.

Date - 1 October 2007
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Temporary demountable structures: Guidance on procurement, design and use (Fourth edition)

Temporary demountable structures: Guidance on procurement, design and use (Fourth edition)

Essential information for Event Organisers, Venue Owners, Local Authorities, Contractors, Suppliers and 'Competent persons', on the procurement, design and use of temporary demountable structures, including: grandstands; stages; fabric structures, hospitality units and fencing/barriers.

Date - 1 May 2017
Author - Various (Institution Task Group - AGOTS)
Price - £25.35/£39
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Notes - Level 1 (35-volume package)

Technical Guidance Notes - Level 1 (35-volume package)

All Level 1 Technical Guidance Notes (originally published in The Structural Engineer magazine).

Date - 1 March 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£220.50
Eurocode manuals (seven-volume package)

Eurocode manuals (seven-volume package)

This popular package contains all of the Institution's Eurocode manuals. Including Eurocodes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The second edition of Eurocode 5: timber building structures is due for publication in December and is included in this package.

Date - 1 November 2018
Author - Various (Institution Task Groups)
Price - £202.02/£310.80
Subsidence of low rise buildings (Second edition)

Subsidence of low rise buildings (Second edition)

Primarily for structural engineers and property owners (but also for mortgage lenders, property valuers, insurers, builders, surveyors, and local authorities) this guidance focuses on the causes of subsidence damage, appraising a property with subsidence, carrying out remedial works, and insurance matters.

Date - 1 August 2000
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £38.35/£59
Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)

Structural use of glass in buildings (Second edition)

Guidance for structural engineers and construction industry professionals experienced in more traditional materials - providing an insight into design methodology, specification, materials and techniques in the design and construction of glass structures.

Date - 1 February 2014
Author - C. O'Regan
Price - £31.85/£49
Structural design (two-volume package)

Structural design (two-volume package)

A two-volume package comprising: Structural design – the engineer’s role Structural design – achieving excellence

Date - 1 June 2015
Author - Various (Institution Task Groups)
Price - £33.93/£52.20
Structural design - achieving excellence

Structural design - achieving excellence

An overview of the tasks undertaken by structural engineers during design and construction. It can also be purchased as part of a two-volume package.

Date - 1 June 2015
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £18.85/£29
Structural design - the engineer's role

Structural design - the engineer's role

An overview of the structural engineering profession and what structural engineers do.

Date - 1 September 2011
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £18.85/£29
Standard method of detailing structural concrete (Third edition)

Standard method of detailing structural concrete (Third edition)

An established reference source for any structural design office, this guidance is a working document on structural concrete - used to interpret designers' instructions in the form of drawings and schedules for communication to site.

Date - 1 June 2006
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Stability of buildings Parts 1 and 2: General philosophy and framed bracing

Stability of buildings Parts 1 and 2: General philosophy and framed bracing

Part of a four-part series providing guidance on the 'stability system' of a building. The series focuses specifically on lateral load resisting systems, triangulated (framed) vertical bracing, shear walls and moment frames.

Date - 1 July 2014
Author - A. Gardner (The Institution of Structural Engineers)
Price - £18.85/£29
Stability of buildings Part 4: Moment frames

Stability of buildings Part 4: Moment frames

Forming part of a four-volume series providing guidance on the 'stability system' of a building, the series focuses specifically on lateral load resisting systems, triangulated (framed) vertical bracing, shear walls and moment frames. It can also be purchased as part of a four-part package.

Date - 1 November 2015
Author - A. Gardner (The Institution of Structural Engineers)
Price - £25.35/£39
Stability of buildings Part 3: Shear walls

Stability of buildings Part 3: Shear walls

Forming part of a four-volume series providing guidance on the 'stability system' of a building, the series focuses specifically on lateral load resisting systems, triangulated (framed) vertical bracing, shear walls and moment frames. It can also be purchased as part of a four-part package.

Date - 1 March 2015
Author - A. Gardner (The Institution of Structural Engineers)
Price - £25.35/£39
Safety in tall buildings

Safety in tall buildings

Published in response to the events of September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center in New York, this guidance examines key safety issues for tall buildings and other structures of large occupancy.

Date - 1 July 2002
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Risk in structural engineering

Risk in structural engineering

This guidance provides a decision-making framework to assist structural engineers in the production of risk management assessments.

Date - 1 October 2013
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Practical guide to structural robustness and disproportionate collapse in buildings

Practical guide to structural robustness and disproportionate collapse in buildings

Date - 1 October 2010
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Manual for the systematic risk assessment of high-risk structures against disproportionate collapse

Manual for the systematic risk assessment of high-risk structures against disproportionate collapse

Guidance for structural engineers and those working in a Building Control capacity, on how to prepare a systematic risk assessment for high-risk structures.

Date - 1 October 2013
Author - D. Cormie
Price - £25.35/£39
Manual for the seismic design of steel and concrete buildings to Eurocode 8

Manual for the seismic design of steel and concrete buildings to Eurocode 8

This manual supports the seismic design of buildings to BS EN 1998 Parts 1 and 5:2004 (Eurocode 8) for construction in the UK and France. It can be purchased as an individual title, or as part of a suite of Eurocode manuals.

Date - 1 October 2010
Author - Various (IStructE and AFPS Task Groups)
Price - £38.35/£59
Manual for the geotechnical design of structures to Eurocode 7

Manual for the geotechnical design of structures to Eurocode 7

Date - 1 May 2013
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £44.85/£69
Manual for the design of steelwork building structures to Eurocode 3

Manual for the design of steelwork building structures to Eurocode 3

This manual supports the design of steelwork building structures to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005, BS EN 1993-1-8:2005, BS EN 1993-1-10:2005, and the design of composite floors to BS EN 1994-1-1:2004 for UK construction. It can be purchased as an individual title, or as part of a suite of Eurocode manuals.

Date - 1 October 2010
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £31.85/£49
Manual for the design of steelwork building structures (Third edition)

Manual for the design of steelwork building structures (Third edition)

This manual supported the design of steelwork building structures to BS 5950-1 for UK construction.

Date - 1 August 2008
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £31.85/£49
Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures (Second edition)

Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures (Second edition)

This manual supported the design of reinforced concrete building structures to BS 8110, BS 8002 and BS 8666 for UK construction.

Date - 1 July 2002
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Manual for the design of plain masonry in building structures to Eurocode 6 (Second edition)

Manual for the design of plain masonry in building structures to Eurocode 6 (Second edition)

This manual supports the design of plain masonry in building structures to BS EN 1996 Parts 1 and 2:2005/6 (Eurocode 6) for UK construction. It can also be purchased as part of a suite of Eurocode manuals.

Date - 1 November 2018
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £31.85/£49
Manual for the design of plain masonry in building structures (Second edition)

Manual for the design of plain masonry in building structures (Second edition)

Date - 1 January 2005
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2

Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2

This manual supports the design of non-sway, reinforced and prestressed concrete building structures to BS EN 1992 Part 1:2004 (Eurocode 2) for UK construction. It can also be purchased as part of a suite of Eurocode manuals.

Date - 1 September 2006
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £31.85/£49
Manual for the design of building structures to Eurocode 1 and Basis of Structural Design

Manual for the design of building structures to Eurocode 1 and Basis of Structural Design

A working version of BS EN 1990:2002 (Eurocode 0) and BS EN 1991:2002 (Eurocode 1) for use by structural engineers designing non-specialist building structures in Consequence Classes CC1, CC2a and CC2b.

Date - 1 April 2010
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £44.85/£69
Guide to inspection of underwater structures

Guide to inspection of underwater structures

Guidance for undertaking inspections of underwater, inland and coastal structures in water depths to 30m - including inspection techniques, equipment and safety.

Date - 1 October 2001
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Guide to the advanced fire safety engineering of structures

Guide to the advanced fire safety engineering of structures

An overview of the advanced methods available for designing structures for fire resistance.

Date - 1 August 2007
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £18.85/£29
Guide to surveys and inspections of buildings and associated structures

Guide to surveys and inspections of buildings and associated structures

Guidance for structural engineers and surveyors on the methods and approaches taken to inspect, appraise and report on buildings and associated structures.

Date - 1 June 2008
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £18.85/£29
Essential Knowledge Text No.17 Dynamics

Essential Knowledge Text No.17 Dynamics

Structural dynamics is the study of how structures respond to loads that vary rapidly with time. This introduction to the subject, focusing on linear elastic structures, explains how to calculate or estimate the key dynamic properties of simple structures, and outlines the principles used by finite element programs in analysing the dynamics of more complex structures.

Date - 1 November 2016
Author - M. Williams
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.16 Stability

Essential Knowledge Text No.16 Stability

Stability is one of two fundamental requirements of a structure, the other being equilibrium. Lack of stability during construction or service life can cause catastrophic structural failure. Stability is necessary against horizontal loads, asymmetric loading, out-of-plane loading and the effects of geometric imperfections, loading eccentricities and tolerances.

Date - 1 September 2016
Author - D. Cormie
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.15 Approximate analysis of skeletal structures

Essential Knowledge Text No.15 Approximate analysis of skeletal structures

Some form of approximate analysis remains essential for both the conceptual design of structures and verification of final (computer) analysis. This text presents simple approaches to the approximate analysis of two-dimensional skeletal structures.

Date - 1 September 2017
Author - G. Owens
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.14 Principles for computer analysis of structures

Essential Knowledge Text No.14 Principles for computer analysis of structures

This text presents the 'reflective approach' to the computer analysis of structures, to ensure that the analysis model is a valid representation of the real structure and that the structural analysis has been carried out correctly.

Date - 1 September 2016
Author - I.A. MacLeod and A. Weir
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.13 Behaviour of beams and two-dimensional frames

Essential Knowledge Text No.13 Behaviour of beams and two-dimensional frames

This is an introduction to the understanding of structural behaviour - applied to two-dimensional, mainly redundant frames. It demonstrates a qualitative approach, with an emphasis on a diagrammatic solution consisting of the detected shape, reactions and bending moment diagrams. A clear convention is established for the axes and diagrams, which is key to understanding structural behaviour.

Date - 1 June 2016
Author - D. Brohn
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.12 Flexure and flexural structures

Essential Knowledge Text No.12 Flexure and flexural structures

This text is an introduction to the most important aspects of flexure in structures. A description of the widespread use of flexural elements and structures is followed by an introduction to the modelling and analysis of beams, slabs and frames. The text then discusses the use of four common structural materials in flexural elements and structures.

Date - 1 June 2017
Author - M. Bather and P. Bullman
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.11 Triangulated structures

Essential Knowledge Text No.11 Triangulated structures

This is an introduction to the most important aspects of triangulated structures. Triangulated structures are widely used and can provide stiffness with very little structural material. Being formed from many interconnecting parts, a knowledge of several aspects of modelling, analysis and design is needed to be able to understand their structural behaviour.

Date - 1 November 2016
Author - M. Bather and P. Bullman
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.1 Introduction: Part 1 - Structure is everywhere!

Essential Knowledge Text No.1 Introduction: Part 1 - Structure is everywhere!

This Text introduces the universal role of structures in our world. It explains the complex thought processes that are at play in the act of ‘structural design’ and highlights the challenges and rewards of design synthesis.

Date - 1 March 2016
Author - C. Wise
Price - Free
Essential Knowledge Text No.9 Stress and strain

Essential Knowledge Text No.9 Stress and strain

This text provides a summary of the essential knowledge of mechanics of materials for structural engineers, including elastic direct and shear stresses and strains in 2D and 3D, Mohr's circle, real and engineering stresses, geometric properties for doubly and singly symmetric sections, axial, bending, shear and torsional stresses (of open and closed sections), and effects of plasticity.

Date - 1 March 2019
Author - C. Georgopoulos
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.8 New structural materials

Essential Knowledge Text No.8 New structural materials

This text presents a range of emerging materials, both natural and man-made which, in the right circumstances, can offer significant advantages over traditional materials.

Date - 1 October 2018
Author - M. Evernden
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.7 Traditional structural materials

Essential Knowledge Text No.7 Traditional structural materials

This text presents the most traditional and familiar structural materials: steel, concrete, masonry, timber and glass. Material data are presented followed by a summary of specific manufacturing techniques and key material characteristics.

Date - 1 May 2016
Author - M. Evernden
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.6 Introduction to structural materials

Essential Knowledge Text No.6 Introduction to structural materials

The Essential Knowledge Series is a core resource (primarily for structural engineering students but a useful refresher for more senior engineers) covering fundamental topics from structural materials to computer analysis. Student Members and members of the Institution's Academic Community can download the series for free at: www.istructe.org/essential-knowledge

Date - 1 May 2016
Author - M. Evernden
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.5 Lessons from failures

Essential Knowledge Text No.5 Lessons from failures

Failures happen and their causes are many. However, as a group, failures are not just ‘accidents’. There are common themes and, by studying them, we can learn to minimise the risk of repeats.

Date - 1 April 2016
Author - A. Mann
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.4 Historical development of structural theories and methods of analysis

Essential Knowledge Text No.4 Historical development of structural theories and methods of analysis

Despite the many advantages of computer-aided analysis methods, structural engineers need to understand basic structural theory and its development. This understanding both ensures that we realise the limitations in our analytical abilities and enables us to validate computer output effectively.

Date - 1 April 2016
Author - A. Mann
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.3 Historical development of structural form

Essential Knowledge Text No.3 Historical development of structural form

Structures, buildings and infrastructure enable cities to function and offer delight. Today, architects and engineers have a vast portfolio to draw inspiration from. This text describes how these forms have evolved from earliest times.

Date - 1 April 2016
Author - A. Mann
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.2 Introduction: Part 2 - Designing a meaningful structure

Essential Knowledge Text No.2 Introduction: Part 2 - Designing a meaningful structure

This text presents the fundamental thought processes of conceptual design and the basic principles that underpin all structural systems. These processes and principles are applied to bridges, towers and low-rise long-span structures.

Date - 1 March 2016
Author - C. Wise
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.10 Structural form: Introduction to behaviour, selection and analysis

Essential Knowledge Text No.10 Structural form: Introduction to behaviour, selection and analysis

This text introduces basic structural behaviours; load paths; equilibrium; stability and robustness; choosing structural form and layout; and decomposition of real structures into members and joints for analysis.

Date - 1 June 2016
Author - M. Bather and P. Bullman
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Dynamic performance requirements for permanent grandstands subject to crowd action

Dynamic performance requirements for permanent grandstands subject to crowd action

Recommendations on crowd loading for those with responsibility for permanent grandstands, including: owners, operators, architects, insurers and design engineers.

Date - 1 December 2008
Author - IStructE Joint Working Group
Price - £25.35/£39
Design recommendations for multi-storey and underground car parks (Fourth edition)

Design recommendations for multi-storey and underground car parks (Fourth edition)

Design guidance for structural engineers, other construction professionals and car park owners/operators.

Date - 1 March 2011
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Building for a sustainable future: An engineer's guide

Building for a sustainable future: An engineer's guide

Pragmatic assistance for structural engineers in the delivery of sustainable projects for the building sector.

Date - 1 February 2014
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Appraisal of existing structures (Third edition)

Appraisal of existing structures (Third edition)

Comprehensive, step-by-step guidance for structural engineers needing to check and report on the adequacy of an existing structure.

Date - 1 October 2010
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £38.35/£59
A short guide to embodied carbon in building structures

A short guide to embodied carbon in building structures

Essential guidance for structural engineers, on the reduction of a structure's carbon footprint; focusing on embodied energy and carbon associated directly with the structure.

Date - 1 September 2011
Author - Prof. R. Plank
Price - Free
Disproportionate collapse (two-volume package)

Disproportionate collapse (two-volume package)

A two-volume package comprising: Practical guide to structural robustness and disproportionate collapse in buildings Manual for the systematic risk assessment of high-risk structures against disproportionate collapse

Date - 1 October 2013
Author - D. Cormie/Institution Task Group
Price - £45.63/£70.20
Stability of buildings (three-volume package)

Stability of buildings (three-volume package)

A three-volume package comprising: Stability of buildings Parts 1 and 2: General philosophy and framed bracing Stability of buildings Parts 3: Shear walls Stability of buildings Parts 4: Moment frames

Date - 1 November 2015
Author - A. Gardner (The Institution of Structural Engineers)
Price - £55.64/£85.60
Essential Knowledge Text No.19 Ground engineering: Part 2 - Practical design

Essential Knowledge Text No.19 Ground engineering: Part 2 - Practical design

This text details the subject knowledge required of all structural engineers to enable them to carry out the design of simple foundations, slopes and ground improvement that do not require specialist advice.

Date - 1 May 2019
Author - H-C. Yeow
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
Essential Knowledge Text No.18 Ground engineering: Part 1 - Principles

Essential Knowledge Text No.18 Ground engineering: Part 1 - Principles

This text provides a summary of the ground engineering knowledge required of all structural engineers. Owing to the wide-ranging nature of the subject, only core concepts are introduced, supported by the most important theoretical background.

Date - 1 April 2019
Author - H-C. Yeow
Price - £0/£9.75/£15
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 5): Derivation of snow load

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 5): Derivation of snow load

This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of snow load onto structures. It is based on Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Part 1-3; General Actions – Snow Loads. With this Eurocode being focused on an action that is sensitive to environmental effects, the UK annex to it plays a significant role, as it makes reference to projected snow falls that are unique to the British Isles. There are a large number of variations and conditions the designer must be aware of when determining snow loads onto structures. As such, the reader is referred to the code text more frequently than in other Technical Guidance Notes. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 March 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 34): Introduction to below ground drainage

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 34): Introduction to below ground drainage

This Technical Guidance Note explains the basic principles of below ground drainage for both surface and foul water. Acting as an introduction, it describes the different types of drainage pipes that are available, how they are installed, how they interface with structure, their testing and maintenance.

Date - 3 February 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 31): Drawing nomenclature

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 31): Drawing nomenclature

This Technical Guidance Note describes the basic knowledge required to read drawings produced by structural engineers.

Date - 1 September 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 15): Moment distribution

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 15): Moment distribution

While the advancement of computer based analysis continues to grow exponentially within the field of structural engineering, the tools that are used to analyse structures by hand are no less relevant. Many would argue that such tools are even more vital today than they have ever been if we are to fully understand the output of analysis applications. With this in mind, this Technical Guidance Note describes one of the most powerful analysis tools available: moment distribution. Moment distribution is a method by which statically indeterminate structures are analysed elastically. It’s based on the relative stiffness of elements that make up a structure and shifts bending moments from one section of the structure to another until they become balanced. Once this balance has been achieved, the forces and bending moments within the structure are modelled. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 31 August 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 13): Reading structural steelwork drawings

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 13): Reading structural steelwork drawings

This Technical Guidance Note describes how drawings for structural steelwork are developed and read. They have their own unique set of rules and nomenclature and it is important for engineers to understand all of these rules in order to communicate and interpret the design of steelwork structures. This guide is split into two sections; the first contains the information a designer of the steel elements provides, whilst the second contains the information a fabricator creates in order to manufacture and construct the steel structure. While one feeds into the other, the level of detail each set of information provides is very different, due primarily to the end result. One is informing the manufacture of the steelwork, while the other focuses on its installation.

Date - 2 August 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 12): Introduction to steel portal frames

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 12): Introduction to steel portal frames

Portal frames are a simple and very common type of framed (or skeleton) structure. Steel portal frames, in particular, are a cost-effective structural system to support building envelopes (such as warehouses and shopping complexes) requiring large column-free spaces. In general, the loads and consequent deformations for these frames are in the plane of the structure, and hence these are a 2D (or plane) frame structure. Due to the practical requirement of having a clear space between the supports of a portal frame, providing in-plane bracing is generally not feasible. Consequently, these frames undergo larger deflections and are prone to sway laterally, even under the vertical loads. The concept of sway frames is addressed in more detail in Technical Guidance Note No. 10 (Level 1) Principles of lateral stability. Thus, in spite of the inherent simplicity of portal frames, many aspects of their analysis, design and detailing require careful consideration. Portal frames can be made from concrete, timber and even glass but the vast majority, in the UK certainly, are constructed from steel. This Technical Guidance Note gives an introduction to steel portal frames and their preliminary analysis. Steel portal frames usually have pinned bases and moment connections at the column/rafter interface and mid-span apex splice in the rafter. Although there are other forms of portal frame (described in Elastic Design of Single- Span Steel Portal Frame Buildings to Eurocode 3), for the sake of brevity and clarity this note will be dedicated to this particular form. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 29 May 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 11): Steel fibre reinforced concrete ground bearing slabs

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 11): Steel fibre reinforced concrete ground bearing slabs

This Technical Guidance Note describes how steel fibre reinforced concrete ground bearing slabs are designed. This is a relatively recent innovation that continues to evolve. As such, this note aims to motivate the design and development of steel fibre reinforced ground bearing slabs, based on the most up-to-date information available at the time of writing.

Date - 1 May 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 17): Element size estimation

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 17): Element size estimation

Once the concept and scheme for a structure has been settled upon, the initial sizing of the elements that it is made up of commences. This Technical Guidance Note provides a set of hints as to how to initially size elements, prior to carrying out the detailed design. This process allows the engineer to gain an appreciation of the form of the structure and the changes that may be required if element sizes prove to be too onerous following this size estimation process. Access more Technical Guidance Notes through our series homepage .

Date - 26 September 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 10): Design of reinforced concrete walls

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 10): Design of reinforced concrete walls

This Technical Guidance Note explains how reinforced concrete walls are designed to withstand high in-plane bending forces, in accordance with Eurocode 2.

Date - 1 April 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 10): Principles of lateral stability

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 10): Principles of lateral stability

This guide explains the various methods that can be adopted to ensure that lateral stability to structures is achieved. This note also highlights the need for robustness in structures as it is regarded as an aspect of structural design that can have an impact on strategies adopted for lateral stability. All of the guides in this series have an icon based navigation system, designed to aid the reader. Access more Technical Guidance Notes through our series homepage .

Date - 2 July 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 1): Designing a steel beam

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 1): Designing a steel beam

The subject of this guide is the design of non-composite steel beams to BS EN 1993-1-1 – Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. It covers both restrained and unrestrained rolled steel ‘I’ and ‘H’ beam sections. This is the first in the series of Level 2 guides and as such,the reader is assumed to be familiar with the concepts explained in relevant Level 1 Technical Guidance Notes. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 12 January 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
Essential Knowledge Series (19-volume package)

Essential Knowledge Series (19-volume package)

The series covers the core principles of structural design, analysis and mechanics.

Date - 1 May 2019
Author - Various
Price - £0/£129.68/£199.50
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 5): Designing a concrete column

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 5): Designing a concrete column

This Technical Guidance Note concentrates on the design of reinforced concrete columns to BS EN 1992-1-1 – Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. It covers the design of columns of all cross section profiles, which are typically square, rectangular and circular.

Date - 1 May 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 25): Introduction to fatigue

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 25): Introduction to fatigue

This Technical Guidance Note defines the concept of fatigue and how its effects can be countered.

Date - 26 March 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 22): Biaxial bending in columns

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 22): Biaxial bending in columns

This Technical Guidance Note describes the concept of biaxial bending of columns, as well as the effect direct bending has on column design. The guidance given here can be applied to columns made from any material, be it steel, concrete, timber or even glass.

Date - 12 January 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 16): Lateral torsional buckling

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 16): Lateral torsional buckling

Elements within a steel frame structure are at risk of buckling under load. If measures are not taken when designing steel elements that recognise this risk, then the likelihood of its failure is significantly increased. This Technical Guidance Note explains how steel elements are restrained against buckling and what the structural engineer should consider when analysing steel structures with respect to buckling resistance.

Date - 26 September 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 14): Structural analysis methodology

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 14): Structural analysis methodology

When analysing structures it is important to adopt a methodical approach wherever possible. By breaking down the structure into manageable portions, the complexity of the analysis is reduced and thus becomes easier to control and review. By adopting such an approach, a seemingly insurmountable task becomes a much more approachable one. This Technical Guidance Note is a good practice guide for analysing and designing structures. It explains how structures are given form, modelled, analysed and designed. Mention is made of the need to rationalise the analysis process, but not at the expense of an economic design.

Date - 31 August 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 12): Reading reinforced concrete drawings

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 12): Reading reinforced concrete drawings

This Technical Guidance Note explains the way in which reinforced concrete drawings should be read. In many cases reinforced concrete drawings are more diagrammatic than their general arrangement counterparts and carry with them their own unique set of rules and nomenclature. Note that the guidance provided here is based on European codes of practice; for all other regions the reader is directed to local guidelines on reinforced concrete detailing methods. This technical guidance note does not cover the rules governing the detailing reinforced concrete. That is a far more complex subject which is dealt with in The Institution of Structural Engineers’ publication Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete (3rd edition).

Date - 2 August 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 19): Soil bearing capacity

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 19): Soil bearing capacity

When designing foundations for a structure there is a need to determine the bearing capacity of the soil. This applies to all forms of foundation, from a simple pad footing to a pile cap. The bearing stress capacity of the soil is the key variable that has a direct impact on the form and size of foundations. This Technical Guidance Note explains the principles of how bearing capacity of soils are determined and how it impacts on the design of foundations.

Date - 26 October 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 6): Designing a laterally loaded masonry wall

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 6): Designing a laterally loaded masonry wall

Until relatively recently, masonry was the major load bearing component in a building structure. With the advent of steel and concrete frame technologies, masonry has become a part of a building’s cladding envelope and as such is more prone to being exposed to lateral loads than vertical ones. This Technical Guidance Note concerns the design of masonry walls that are subject to lateral loads i.e. they are being used as a cladding element. It will discuss the way in which the material is assessed against how it is being restrained and its geometry. All of these factors have an impact on the design of masonry walls as well as the mortar within them and the exposure conditions. This is discussed in Technical Guidance Note 27 (Level 1) and should be read in conjunction with this guide. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 June 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 4): Derivation of wind load

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 4): Derivation of wind load

This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of wind load onto structures. It is based on Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Part 1-4; General Actions – Wind Actions. With this being focused on a load that is sensitive to the environment, the UK Annex to the Eurocode plays a significant part as it makes reference to wind speeds that are unique to the British Isles. There are a large amount of variations and conditions the designer must be aware of when determining wind loads on structures. It is for this reason that the reader is referred to the code text more often than in other notes in this series.

Date - 1 February 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 9): Visualisation of structures

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 9): Visualisation of structures

This Technical Guidance Note focuses on the visualisation of structures. It is essential for structural engineers to be able to express their ideas clearly through their designs. Visualising structures in the appropriate way enhances the design process - not least because drawing the complex elements of a structure while carrying out calculations, can help to identify possible construction issues/problems at an earlier stage than may otherwise be possible. This guide explains two techniques that are commonly used to draw in three dimensions and thus aid the structural engineer in visualising the structures they design.All of the guides in this series have an icon based navigation system, designed to aid the reader.

Date - 2 May 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 32): Floor slab construction

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 32): Floor slab construction

When developing a scheme for a structure, the choice of floor slab construction is critical to the columns, foundations, walls and overall stability. As such, the floor slab’s form should be selected with care and consideration. This Technical Guidance Note provides information about a number of common floor construction forms that are currently available. It focuses on concrete based solutions: some acting compositely with steel elements, such as reinforcement and/or steel members. Descriptions of each flooring system together with their key features (which cover topics such as buildability, aesthetics and compatibility of other elements e.g. building services) are included. Please be aware that floor slab technology is continually evolving and that new floor slab solutions continue to become available as a result. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 September 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 11): Floor vibration

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 11): Floor vibration

This Technical Guidance Note is an introduction to the assessment of floor vibrations. Since the adventof lighter structures that have longer spanning elements within them, the built in dampening effectbuildings have had historically has become less pronounced. Despite this, floor vibration canbe an overlooked criterion during the design process. This can lead to expensive remedial works being carried out on structures after they have been built, as occupants complain of discomfort due to excessive movements and vibrations. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 2 July 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
Manual for the design of timber building structures to Eurocode 5 (Second edition)

Manual for the design of timber building structures to Eurocode 5 (Second edition)

Pre-order available. " By far the leading resource for timber engineering. " This new edition includes essential updates on material properties, bearing capacities, connections, glulam, racking, and fire, along with the insertion of new sections referencing CLT and the new product standard.

Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £44.85/£69
Cover image of

Structural aspects of cladding

Pre-order available. This new guidance provides helpful information for practicing structural engineers at all career stages.

Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
Introduction to structural fire engineering

Introduction to structural fire engineering

Pre-order available. A comprehensive introduction to the design of primary building structures during fire, for all principal structural materials.

Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £25.35/£39
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 9): Designing a reinforced concrete retaining wall

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 9): Designing a reinforced concrete retaining wall

Although retaining walls have been the subject of two earlier Technical Guidance Notes; No. 8 (Level 1): Derivation of loading to retaining structures and No. 33 (Level 1): Retaining wall construction, their design has not been covered. This guidance note focuses specifically on the design of reinforced concrete gravity retaining walls. There are three different forms of this type of wall, all of which are designed to resist overturning and sliding failure. The primary difference between them is their height. The taller the retaining wall, the more likely that counterforts and beams spanning between them will be necessary. This note describes how all of these forms of retaining wall can be designed. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 January 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 3): Derivation of imposed loads

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 3): Derivation of imposed loads

Imposed load is defined as the load that is applied to the structure that is not permanent and can be variable. In Eurocode phraseology, it is described as a 'quasi-permanent variable action'. Please be aware that this note does not cover lateral loads onto barriers, balustrades and axle loads from vehicles. These will be covered in a forthcoming note. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 February 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
Structural effects of alkali-silica reaction publication

Structural effects of alkali-silica reaction

Information on the development of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) damage in the UK, the chemical process of ASR, and the diagnosis and assessment of expansion and cracking on concrete.

Date - 1 July 1992
Author - Various (Institution Task Group)
Price - £18.85/£29
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 21): Design and detailing of base plates to steel columns

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 21): Design and detailing of base plates to steel columns

This Technical Guidance Note describes the design and detailing of base plates – the primary means by which steel-framed structures transmit vertical loads into their foundations.

Date - 1 May 2019
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 21): How to avoid torsion

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 21): How to avoid torsion

The twisting of elements within structures due to eccentric loading is something that is best avoided as far as is possible. Such actions develop torsion forces in elements against which they were not designed to withstand. This Technical Guidance Note concerns this buildability and detailing issue that structural engineers must become familiar with in order to avoid otherwise unforeseen problems that can lead to significant remedial works on site and in some cases failures.

Date - 30 November 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 1): Principles of design

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 1): Principles of design

This Technical Guidance Note acts as an introduction to the core design concepts that are found within the current codes of practice used within the UK. It also explains the relationship between each of the other guidance notes and how the reader is to navigate and use them. All of the subsequent notes make reference, be they direct or implied to this core guide; it is therefore imperative that anyone seeking to use these guides must be fully conversant with what is contained within this note.

Date - 1 January 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 26): Cracking in concrete

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 26): Cracking in concrete

This Technical Guidance Note describes the causes of cracking in concrete.

Date - 1 May 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Notes: an introduction

Technical Guidance Notes: an introduction

In his editorial of 18th October 2011, Managing Editor Lee Baldwin heralded the introduction of a series of 'Technical Guidance Notes'. Sarah Fray - Director: Engineering and Technical Services provides an introduction to the series.

Date - 1 January 2012
Author - S. Fray (Institution of Structural Engineers)
Price - Free
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 15): Design of timber posts

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 15): Design of timber posts

The design of timber posts follows the same principles as the design of vertical structural elements formed from other materials. Extreme fibre stresses or buckling due to applied axial forces are the key components affecting a post’s ability to perform. The major difference is the anisotropic nature of timber, which, for vertical elements, has a significant impact on the assessment of their performance as a structural member. The design of timber elements in the UK, according to current codes of practice, is based on limit state theory. This Technical Guidance Note adopts this approach to describe the design of timber posts. The note assumes that the reader is familiar with the use of coefficient factors prevalent within BS EN 1995-1-1 (Eurocode 5), as described in Technical Guidance Notes Level 1, No. 18 Design of timber floor joists and Level 2, No. 14 Design of unrestrained timber beams.

Date - 1 February 2018
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 13): Masonry cladding to steel-framed buildings

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 13): Masonry cladding to steel-framed buildings

Since the invention of medium-storey framed structures in the late 1800s, there has been a need to clad them with a reasonably robust material that acts as an efficient barrier to the external environment. Masonry delivers the performance required of a cladding system on multiple fronts. It has therefore developed from a load-bearing element within structures to become a component of an envelope to larger framed buildings. This Technical Guidance Note introduces structural engineers to the interfaces between a primary structure that is principally formed from steelwork and a masonry cladding system.

Date - 2 October 2017
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 30): Ground bearing slabs

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 30): Ground bearing slabs

An introduction to ground bearing floor slabs, touching on the slabs' reinforcement by considering both historical use of mesh as well as current plastic and steel fibre reinfocement methods.

Date - 1 August 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 29): Post fix anchors

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 29): Post fix anchors

Recently, the technology behind post fix anchors has become increasingly complex. This guidance note has been developed in order to provide some clarity around the multitude of options that can be presented to a designer required to specify anchors.

Date - 25 June 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 2): Designing a steel column

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 2): Designing a steel column

The subject of this guide is the design of columns in simple construction to BS EN 1993-1-1 – Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. It covers rolled steel ‘I’ and ‘H’ sections that are acting as columns within a braced steel frame structure.

Date - 1 February 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 3): Designing a concrete slab

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 3): Designing a concrete slab

The subject of this guide is the design of one way spanning concrete slabs to BS EN 1992-1-1 – Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. The design of such elements is very simple to carry out and thus acts as a good introduction to the concept of reinforced concrete.

Date - 27 February 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 20): Site Investigations

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 20): Site Investigations

The importance of accurate information and interpretation of soil conditions on a site cannot be understated. The chosen form of any sub-structure is entirely dependent upon what the site investigations have revealed. It is typically up to the structural engineer, with the aid of geotechnical engineers and specialists, to determine the extent of this investigation and interpret its results. This Technical Guidance Note explains the various methods of site investigation and can be considered a partner to the previously published note on 'soil bearing capacity'.

Date - 30 November 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 18): Design of timber floor joists

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 18): Design of timber floor joists

One of the most common structural elements is the timber floor joist. This is normally found in residential properties, but can also be seen in medium sized commercial developments. This Technical Guidance Note will explain the principles behind the design of timber floor joists and provide a worked example. All of the advice given will be in accordance with BS EN 1995-1-1 Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures – Part 1-1: General – Common rules and rules for buildings. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 26 October 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 2): Derivation of dead loads

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 2): Derivation of dead loads

This Technical Guidance Note concerns the derivation of dead loads. This is a core guidance note and as such, subsequent notes will make reference to this one. It is therefore important to understand the contents of this note before attempting to digest any of the others. Dead load is defined as the weight of static materials contained with a structure. This includes the self weight of the structure as well as the materials it is supporting that are fixed to it. Within Eurocode 1 it is defined as a 'Permanent Action'.

Date - 1 January 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 19): Design and detailing of windposts to masonry walls

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 19): Design and detailing of windposts to masonry walls

Thin panels of masonry in large buildings, or cavity wall skins, require additional horizontal support to make them stable. The element that provides this support is a vertical prop known as a ‘windpost’. Its principal role is to provide lateral support against destabilising horizontal forces that typically originate from wind pressure – hence, the name. Windposts are typically steel elements – either open sections, such as channels or angles, or closed sections, such as rolled hollow rectangular sections. This Technical Guidance Note provides guidance on the design and detailing of windposts relating to their incorporation into building structures.

Date - 2 January 2019
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 18): Design of unreinforced masonry retaining walls

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 18): Design of unreinforced masonry retaining walls

This Technical Guidance Note is intended to act as an aide to those seeking to design an unreinforced masonry retaining wall. Following this guidance will prevent cracking and ensure that the wall performs as originally intended. The note will not cover the design of reinforced masonry retaining walls and variants of that form. Such reinforcement typically strengthens the wall itself against induced bending stresses and the wall’s geometry will therefore be somewhat different to that of an unreinforced retaining wall. The note will also not discuss the applied actions that a retaining wall will be subjected to, nor the construction of retaining walls. These subjects have previously been covered in the following Technical Guidance Notes: Level 1, No. 8: Derivation of loading to retaining structures and Level 1, No. 33: Retaining wall construction. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the content of both these notes.

Date - 1 October 2018
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 16): Design of reinforced concrete bored piles

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 16): Design of reinforced concrete bored piles

Piled foundations are one of the first aspects of scheme design a structural engineer needs to consider during a project's development. It is at this crucial stage that, without any specialist input, the structural engineer must make recommendations based on the typically limited knowledge they have on the subject. This Technical Guidance Note describes the method by which bored piles are designed using the current UK codes of practice, i.e. BS EN 1997 (Eurocode 7). It explains how to interpret soil conditions and design piles to match what has been discovered following a site investigation. The note does not address the types of piling systems that are available, nor the technical issues concerning their installation; these questions are covered in Technical Guidance Note Level 1, No. 23 Introduction to piling . The note explains how to design what is essentially a buried column of concrete to resist forces from the superstructure that are applied to it. It concerns the design of a single pile and not one that is part of a group. For information on how grouped piles differ in their design approach, the reader is directed to Cl. 6.3.3 of BS 8004:2015. (This article was update on 9 March 2018 to correct an error in Table 6.)

Date - 1 March 2018
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 20): Design and detailing of lintels in masonry walls

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 20): Design and detailing of lintels in masonry walls

A significant-sized opening in a masonry wall will always require a lintel to bridge over it. This note offers advice on the different types of lintel that are available, their detailing requirements and their design.

Date - 1 March 2019
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 22): Workmanship and quality inspections by the structural eng

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 22): Workmanship and quality inspections by the structural eng

This Technical Guidance Note covers the inspection of structural elements that are typically present within buildings during their construction and/or alteration phases.

Date - 2 September 2019
Author - Chris O'Regan
Price - £9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 8): Designing a pile-cap

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 8): Designing a pile-cap

This Technical Guidance Note concerns the design of pile-caps for small groups of piles e.g. 2-4 piles. It relies on the strut and tie method to determine the amount of reinforcement required in the pile-cap; which is dependent upon the depth of the cap, the magnitude of the axial load being placed upon it, the cap’s concrete strength and the pile size and spacing.

Date - 28 November 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 7): Designing a concrete pad foundation

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 7): Designing a concrete pad foundation

The purpose of a pad foundation is to spread a concentrated force into soil. They are one of the most simple and cost effective types of footings for structures. Provided the founding soil is of sufficient strength and is not too deep to reach, pad foundations are the preferred solution for foundations due to the straight forward nature of their design and construction. This Technical Guidance Note covers the design of concrete pad foundations, both mass and reinforced concrete forms. It will not, however, discuss how the bearing capacity of the soil is determined, as that is explained in Technical Guidance Note 19 (Level 1) Soil bearing capacity. It is suggested that you read that text in conjunction with this, in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the topic. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 August 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 7): Barrier and vehicle loading

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 7): Barrier and vehicle loading

This Technical Guidance Note concerns lateral loads that are applied to barriers and wheel axle loads from vehicles. Barrier loading is dealt with slightly differently to other forms of imposed loading. The nature of the loading can vary from people leaning against barriers to vehicles colliding with them at speed. Axle loading from vehicles has to be treated somewhat differently to other forms of imposed loading. While it is possible to assume a blanket area load to represent them, it is the point load from each wheel that needs closer attention.

Date - 1 April 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 6): Notional loading (Equivalent Horizontal Forces)

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 6): Notional loading (Equivalent Horizontal Forces)

This Technical Guidance Note concerns the concept of notional loading, which the Eurocodes classifies as Equivalent Horizontal Forces. These are loads that exist due to inaccuracies and imperfections introduced into the structure during its construction. The following text explains how notional lateral loads are incorporated into the design process. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 1 March 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 35): Introduction to structural glass

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 35): Introduction to structural glass

This technical guidance note is an introduction to glass as a structural material. It aims to describe glass in terms of its properties, how it reacts when subjected to various forces and the methods currently being explored and adopted by structural engineers when designing structural glass elements.

Date - 28 February 2014
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 33): Retaining wall construction

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 33): Retaining wall construction

A description of the various forms of retaining walls currently in use. This note is primarily concerned with structures that retain soil.

Date - 1 October 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 28): Introduction to extreme loading conditions

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 28): Introduction to extreme loading conditions

This guidance note pays particular attention to partial factors with reference to BS EN 1990: Eurocode – Basis of structural design, to illustrate how extreme events are approached within a code of practice, and explains how the code interprets the application of loads/actions for the design of structures for such events.

Date - 25 June 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 27): Introduction to masonry

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 27): Introduction to masonry

The use of masonry dates back to antiquity with evidence of the use of some form of stone masonry originating over 10,000 years ago. This guide introduces the material, focusing on the two most common forms; brick and concrete block.

Date - 1 June 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 24): Precast concrete planks

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 24): Precast concrete planks

This Technical Guidance Note describes how prestressed precast concrete planks are constructed, specified and installed.

Date - 27 February 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 23): Introduction to piling

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 23): Introduction to piling

This guidance note describes the different types of pile presently in use, the design concepts that are employed when determining their size and depth, how they are constructed and the various tests that can be carried out to assess a pile's integrity.

Date - 1 February 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
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Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 14): Design of unrestrained timber beams

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 14): Design of unrestrained timber beams

This Technical Guidance Note addresses the design of timber elements that are unrestrained against lateral torsional buckling. It explains how such beams are analysed and designed. The impact of notching the supports of beams is also considered with respect to the shear capacity of the beam. For clarity and brevity, this note only covers solid and glued laminated (glulam) timber elements; compound and composite beams, such as flitch beams, are not considered. The connections within timber frame assemblies will be addressed in a future note. Readers should also be aware that this note forms part of a trio of Technical Guidance Notes leading to the design of bespoke timber trusses – assemblies made from unrestrained timber beams and posts. Notes on the design of timber posts and bespoke timber trusses will follow later in the series.

Date - 20 November 2017
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 17): Simple connections in steel frames

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 17): Simple connections in steel frames

This Technical Guidance Note aims to clarify the term 'simple connection' by explaining its use when designing connections within steel frames. Additionally, guidance is offered on different types of simple connection and the design checks that need to be carried out.

Date - 3 September 2018
Author - C. O'Regan (AECOM)
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 8): Derivation of loading to retaining structures

Technical Guidance Note (Level 1, No. 8): Derivation of loading to retaining structures

This Technical Guidance Note concerns the assessment of loads that are applied to retaining structures, typically generated from soil. These forces primarily come into play during the design of retaining wall structures, but they can also be found in water retaining structures and storage vessels.All of the guides in this series have an icon based navigation system, designed to aid the reader. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 2 May 2012
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9
The Structural Engineer
Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 4): Designing a concrete beam

Technical Guidance Note (Level 2, No. 4): Designing a concrete beam

The subject of this guidance note is the design of reinforced concrete beams to BS EN 1992-1-1 – Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. It covers the design of multispan beams that have both ‘L’ and ‘T’ cross section profiles. (This article was updated in October 2016 to reflect errata issued since its original publication.)

Date - 26 March 2013
Author - The Institution of Structural Engineers
Price - £0/£9